Копия - 00-21.3. Топик Ecology

Ecology

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Топик «Ecology»

Экологические проблемы – один из часто обсуждаемых аспектов жизни человечества. Обсуждаемых на планетарном языке и на всех языках мира. Поэтому и мы не проигнорируем эту тему. С нравственной и практической точек зрения в ней есть очевидные проблемы – загрязнение атмосферы ядовитыми химикатами и угольной пылью, сброс в океаны мусора, уничтожение редких животных браконьерами и т.д., но есть и спорные темы типа Global warming

Все это интересно и тем, кого зовут  environmental freaks, и тем, кто смотрит апокалиптические фильмы:

Узнали песню? Селин Дион – не ее автор, но именно ее вариант вдохновил создателей апокалиптического ролика:

 I see trees of green, red roses too. I see them bloom for me and you. And I think to myself what a wonderful world. I see skies of blue and clouds of white. The bright blessed day, the dark sacred night. And I think to myself what a wonderful world. 

Обратите внимание на то, что blessed может быть глаголом, а может и прилагательным:

Экологическая тематика является одной из важнейших в политике. Любые зловещие предсказания о потопах и торнадо, призыв сберечь природу для будущих поколений, стенания на фоне гор пластиковых бутылок или отрезанных от живых акул плавников – все это не имеет ни малейшего смысла, если не говорить о мерах, которые могли бы изменить окружающую среду к лучшему и предотвратить катастрофу. Именно поэтому тема может давать повод для сатиры:

Это заключительные кадры мультфильма Team America. Рекомендуем его посмотреть, особенно заключительную речь главного героя. Будете очень много смеяться. Ким Чен Ир вступил в сговор с с актером Алеком Болдуином, возглавляющим Гильдию Актеров. ООН представлено в виде собрания экзотических диктаторов, которых легко переубедить пламенной речью главного героя. Алек Болдуин безуспешно пытается что-то сказать про Global warming и интересы корпораций…

Тема актуальна и сегодня:

What does President Trump think about climate change?
There’s particular concern that the US may about to withdraw from the landmark Paris agreement to reduce carbon emissions.
The united states of America officially today notified the United Nations that we are withdrawing from the Paris climate accord.

Президент Трамп обещал возродить угольную промышленность США, еще будучи кандидатом в президенты:

Поэтому он вышел из Парижского соглашения. Вот, что о нем писали так называемые ‘warmists’:

From Canada to China and throughout Europe, the world denounced the President’s decision as reckless and in contradiction to “settled science.” Without the Paris Climate Accords, they argued, Earth would soon find itself cascading off the global warming cliff. One year later, Earth is still here, as you may have noticed. And the U.S. economy – due in large part to the Trump administration’s commitment to deregulation and energy dominance – has continued to grow at breakneck speed (с сайта Fox News).

Еще интереснее цитата (не забывайте проверять, однако):

Now that the media is making Donald Trump the new Hitler for announcing that the U.S. will have nothing to do with the stupid Paris Climate Accord, how about we take a short diversion from the online handwringing and end-of-the-world hysteria (Actor Mark Ruffalo says "Trump will have the death of whole nations on his hands") and look at some facts.

 The Earth stopped significant warming in the 1990's. Warmists have admitted this and call it "the pause." We don't know why the Earth warmed significantly in the 1900's, but it's just as likely that it was a rebound from the cold period known as "Little Ice Age," which lasted from about 1300 until 1870. There is evidence that the "Medieval Warm Period" that preceded it from 900-1300 was as warm as today, but without ExxonMobil.

So, why do warmists still need a Paris Climate Accord so badly? Because the belief in climate change is not rooted chiefly in science. It's a secular religion in which man's mere existence is bad for the Earth. This is opposite of the Bible's stated role for man and Earth, and that difference alone should trouble Christians who believe this warming bunk. The Global Warming "crisis" was reverse-engineered by leftists who hate capitalism and corporations and needed a spiritual home after the fall of communism. To quote the biochemist Bruce Ames of UC-Berkeley, "God died, then Marx, so now they're worshipping the planet." Most importantly, the Paris Climate Agreement will cost at least $1 trillion per year but reduce global temperatures by only 0.023 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100.  Even James Hansen, the father of global warming alarmism, once called the Paris Climate Agreement a "fraud," a "fake" and "just worthless words."

About the only thing the Paris Climate Accord accomplishes is to serve as a religious indulgence; to give those who feel guilty about the unparalleled comfort and economic super abundance in the present age a way to pay for their "sins" and the illusion that they are sacrificing for the salvation of the planet.

Так что не воспринимайте такие видео только на уровне красивых образов:

I am ice. I move slowly. I keep the world cool. Well, I used to. But humans keep warming this planet. I tried to warn you. I send pieces of me thundering into the ocean. You do nothing. I raise sea levels. You do nothing. It has taken you decades to notice. Perhaps I'm not so slow after all.

В некоторых регионах мира угольная экономика и пренебрежение к проблемам загрязнения окружающей среды – далеко не тема праздных академических дискуссий:

You can see it, you can smell it and you can taste it. You can smell, even taste, the coal dust in the air.

Давайте отравимся в Гренландию и посмотрим, что там происходит глазами корреспондента CNN – канала, работающего на интересы Демократической партии США. Эта партия традиционно эксплуатирует тему экологии для увеличения популярности. Кстати, небольшой экскурс в историю названий: «Once upon a time, war broke out among Norwegian Vikings. One band launched the boats and fled. They discovered a green island and settled. Afraid that their enemies might pursue them, they sent word back to Norway that their island was actually an ice-land, but that another island — more distant, larger and indeed covered by ice — was inhabitable green-land. And so the green island became Iceland, and the icy island became Greenland. This story is fiction, which is to say false». Будьте критичны к разнообразным BS-stories.

Imagine a world where you can sail right up to the North Pole, where the largest ice sheet in the northern hemisphere is simply melting away. - The melt is winning this game. - We've now broken all-time records for three consecutive years. - WARD: As oceans continue to rise flooding the streets of American cities half a world away. - What happens in the Arctic doesn't stay in the Arctic. - Imagine a world where hurricanes and heat waves wreak havoc.  - CNN breaking news as hurricane Irma continues to show no mercy. - Just a hell of a storm. - Politicians deny the problem as temperatures continue to rise. - It's a hoax. A money-making industry, OK? - Greenland is an epicenter for climate change. - What if I told you this is already happening, right here, right now, we are the primary cause, and that only we have the power to stop it? This is Greenland, though you will find very little greenery here. Home to some of the most stunning wildlife on the planet, the world's largest island is more than 80 percent made up of pure ice.

Обратите внимание на идиому wreak havoc и термин heat wave – вы будете постоянно слышать эти фразы в новостях. На нашем ресурсе прочитайте об идиоме:

https://www.englishpatient.org/share/i/to-wreak-havoc

It looks as though time has stood still for thousands of years, but this environment reflects the big changes in our world's atmosphere. As the planet gets warmer, the arctic is heating up at double the rate, and Greenland in particular is warming even faster. Jason Box is an American climate scientist who has been coming to this remote corner of the world for more than 20 years. - The amount of water that's produced all across this landscape has increased, doubled in the last 50 years. - Doubled in the last 50 years. Everywhere you go in Greenland you can see and hear the ice sheet melting, sometimes a drip, sometimes a roar. Its surface is etched with fast-flowing rivers that carry the melt water deep down to the bed. - This water cascades down thousands of feet and eventually makes its way to the bed, and it is heating the bed of the ice sheet. Everything's kind of stacking up that the ice is going faster than forecast. -  And no sign of slowing down? - The melt is winning this game. -  And the more Greenland melts, the more it speeds up the melting process. Take the large melt lakes that are forming on top of the ice sheet, stunning to look at, but bad news for the ice. These lakes are deceptively beautiful because whereas the white of the ice actually reflects the sun light, the piercing blue of the lakes actively absorbs it, heating them up and then accelerating the rate of melt.
Perhaps the clearest example of this vicious melt cycle can be seen in Greenland's many glaciers. A glacier is a mass of thick ice that moves under the force of its own weight like a slow river into the sea. But as melt water moves through the ice, it softens it, draining to the bed where it then lubricates the movement of the glacier. We got a rare close-up view of one of Greenland's fastest moving glaciers, named Helheim after the Viking realm of the Dead, it is vast and unforgiving. - This is one of the most productive glaciers in Greenland. It's about three Golden Gate Bridges wide. And it drains on the order of 40 billion metric tons per years. It's almost an astronomical amount of water that this is delivering from high on the ice sheet down into the sea. - Between August of last year and August of this year, New York University scientists say Helheim retreated a whopping two miles, the furthest retreat inland they have seen in a decade. You can see vast chunks of it crashing into the water, a process called ‘caving’. - And what does that mean for the sea? - There's hundreds of glaciers like this in Greenland, and many of them have doubled in speed. So the rate that Greenland is really decanting into the ocean has really gone up in ways that surprise the science community.

To decant – медленно сливаться, переливаться.

And it's not only scientists who have been surprised. Fifty-six-year-old Tobias has been hunting with his dogs in Greenland his whole life, just like his father and grandfather before him. Only these days there's far less ice for dogsledding. This year, Tobias he has to take his dogs off the ice and back to town for the summer. He doesn't know if his grandsons will become hunters. But if the recent past is anything to go by, the future looks bleak. Warming in the last century has been faster than at any time in the past several million years. How concerned are you by the scientific data that you've collected, by the changes you've seen here? - What concerns me most is this concept of committed loss, so the amount of CO2 excess in the atmosphere due to humans burning fossil fuels mainly, that commits us to more than one meter of sea level rise. - That's roughly three feet. And this is where the rest of the world comes in. Greenland doesn't play by Las Vegas rules. What happens here doesn't stay here. As temperatures increase and the melt accelerates, Greenland has become the largest source of sea level rise globally. This year, after decades of decline, the amount of ice lost in Greenland was roughly equal to the amount gained, but Box (man speaking in this film) says this is an anomaly and that even drastic cuts in carbon dioxide emissions won't be enough to stop the continued melting.  Someone said if Greenland is the canary in the coal mine, the canary is dead. - The canary is dead in that it indicates it's time to get out of the mine.

Немного о канарейках и одной интересной фразе – canary test. Канарейки когда-то пели в шахтах и умирали сразу же после достижения критического уровня содержания метана в воздухе. Это служило сигналом срочно покинуть шахту из-за опасности взрыва. Пример использования фразы в русском языке: "Некоторым компаниям, включая Facebook и Twitter, пока что удается избежать запрета. Однако Forbes приводит слова советника президента РФ по вопросам развития интернета Германа Клименко о том, что запрет распространяется на Facebook, Twitter и другие иностранные компании. Если Россия выполнит свою угрозу, у нее могут быть далеко идущие последствия, предупреждает Forbes. Страна в отсутствие компромисса может, по сути, отрезать себя от мирового интернета. LinkedIn здесь выполняет роль канарейки в шахте".

Вы поняли фразу ‘Greenland doesn't play by Las Vegas rules. What happens here doesn't stay here’. Намек на казино, которое деньги всегда оставляет при себе. Но вода не играет по таким правилам и утекает.

Обратите внимание также на признание того, что количество потерянного льда равнялось количеству возобновленного…

Up in the Arctic, we visited a beautiful, strange, and distant world. And we saw for ourselves how life up there is changing for creatures great and small as a result of the warming of the planet. We also learned that that distant, magical world is more closely connected to ours than we ever could have imagined. And as it changes, we humans are living that change too. As the earth gets hotter, the arctic ice is melting, global sea levels are rising, and the whole delicate, interconnected balance that underpins our weather systems is getting thrown off. Heat waves, flash floods, and freak storms are now common occurrence. This year carbon emissions are projected to spike to record highs. If things don't change we're on course to heat the planet by more than five degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the century. Ninety-seven percent of climate scientists agree that humans are the main drivers of climate change. In the weeks since we filmed our report 15,000 scientists from around the world issued a warning to humanity. They say we're heading down a path to substantial and irreversible harm to the planet. There is no silver bullet. We spoke to dozens of scientists for this program, and all of them agree that there is still time but not much. The only question is: what will we do about it?

Описывая озера или ледники, нельзя не обойтись без глагола ‘to shrink’:

The shrinking shores of Lake Chad. – Wildfires increase, lakes shrink.

Поговорим теперь о животном мире и сфокусируемся на способности воспринимать на слух видео:

Poachers kill rhinos for their horns and often leave orphaned calves behind.

Если этот фрагмент и труден для восприятия, то только потому, что вам незнакомы ключевые слова. Это причина, а не оправдание, конечно. Для того чтобы их встретить, не обязательно смотреть BBC или CNN. Вполне хватит Discovery или Animal Planet. Считайте это первой подсказкой. Если затронутая в сюжете тема иногда попадает в новости, то это значит, что в ней есть либо скандал, либо преступление. Это вторая подсказка – ключ к пониманию первого слова. Скорее всего, вы слышите некоторые слова:

XXXX KILL YYYY FOR THEIR ZZZZ 

Слово “kill” для самых догадливых может служить сигналом для проверки слова «браконьер» - кто еще убивает животных? Разве что браконьеры в законе – охотники, но это «благородное слово» вы знаете – “hunters”. А что, если бы не было подсказки, что речь о животных? Все просто – произнесите пару раз первое слово и попробуйте его записать. Пусть это будет “pochers”. Вставьте в строку поиска “pochers kill”, и вы не только получите мгновенную коррекцию (“a’ после “o”), но и варианты названий жертв браконьеров. Так вы узнаете, что YYYY – это “rhinos”. Если же вы знаете слово “horn”, то догадаетесь, что они принадлежат носорогам. Имейте в виду, что у оленей – не “horns”, а “antlers”. Начинайте собирать коллекцию: у слонов и мамонтов – “tusk”. Перейдем ко второй части предложения. В нем вы, видимо, имеете проблему лишь с парой слов:

AND OFTEN LEAVE XXXX YYYY BEHIND

Давайте включим логику: что могут оставить после себя браконьеры? Только истекающего кровью зверя после того, как у него отрезали рог? Или что-то еще? Что оставляют браконьеры на месте преступления? Что их не интересует? Или, возможно, они заботятся о популяции носорогов и поэтому не убивают детенышей? Итак, мы слышим что-то похожее на «оfаn». Такого слова нет. Нет и слова “ophan”. Какие остаются варианты? Правильно, только “orphan” – сирота. Возможно, логически вам было бы трудно понять, что речь о детеныше, оставленном без матери, так как слово «сирота» в русском языке относится только к людям. Так что, нужно было идти к истине через звуки и словарь. Осталось взять последнюю высоту – слово, похожее на “kafs”. Здесь нам поможет только словарь. Если вы чувствуете, что слово “orphan” здесь играет роль прилагательного, то нужно проверить – а нет ли здесь окончания ‘ed’? Итак, ORPHANED. Итак, кто эти «осиротевшие KAFS»? Попробуйте просто найти слово «детеныш» в русско-английском словаре. Вам предложат два варианта – “calf” “cub”. Не будем подробно останавливаться на деталях различий этих слов. Запомните только, что Маугли звали “man cub”,слово “cub” употреблялось и по отношению к волчатам. А “calf” – это еще и «теленок». “Calves” – это детеныши китов, слонов, оленей и т.д. Это слово можно было бы найти за пять минут простым перебором коротких слов, которые начинаются на “ca”. Итак, результат наших трудов:

Poachers kill rhinos for their horns and often leave orphaned calves behind         

Не считаете такие муки слишком затратными! Ведь закрепится только знание, добытое поиском, трудом. Кроме того, наша школа должна научить вас самостоятельно преодолевать трудности восприятия. Посмотрите еще один сюжет без субтитров:

Любопытно, что религиозная организация стремится «сохранить данное Богом» - ведь христианский Бог мог дать что-то около 5000 лет назад. А ведь предки героя сюжета выглядели примерно так же миллионы лет назад… Кстати, в переводе с испанского axolotl – это «водяная собака». Это существо – endangered species (особь, вид). Это слово – species – одинаково звучит и пишется в единственном и множественном числе.

Еще один объект пристального внимания экологов - Great Barrier Reef

Miles of the coast of Australia. There is a sprawling marine habitat, larger than most countries. It’s called The Great Barrier reef and it’s one of natural wonders of the world. But the great barrier reef is in trouble. These living formations of coral, home to thousands of species of fish and other marine life – are dying in record numbers, I’m om a journey to witness firsthand the wonders of The Great Barrier reef.

В этом видео промелькнула слово ‘sprawling’. Его легко запомнить через эту пару сюжетов

The sprawling Mediterranean capital of Algeria. - A sprawling Scottish Castle where the royals like to summer and Sandringham House, the estate where the royal families spend Christmas

В заключение посмотрите эти шедевры ‘conservational video’

Some call me nature. Others call me “Mother Nature.” I’ve been here for over 4.5 billion years. 22,500 times longer than you. I don’t really need people. But people need me. Yes, your future depends on me. When I thrive, you thrive. When I falter, you falter. Or worse. But I’ve been here for eons. I have fed species greater than you. And I have starved species greater than you. My oceans. My soil. My flowing streams. My forests. They all can take you. Or leave you. How you choose to live each day, whether you regard or disregard me, doesn’t really matter to me. One way. Or the other. Your actions will determine your fate. Not mine. I am nature. I will go on. I am prepared to evolve. Are you?
I am the ocean. I’m water. I’m most of this planet. I shaped it. Every stream, every cloud, and every rain drop. It all comes back to me. One way or another, every living thing here needs me. I’m the source. I’m what they crawled out of. Humans? They’re no different. I don’t owe them a thing. I give. They take. But I can always take back. That’s just the way it’s always been. It’s not their planet anyway. Never was. Never will be. But humans, they take more than their share. They poison me, then they expect me to feed them. Well it doesn’t work that way. If humans want to exist in nature with me and off of me, I suggest they listen close. I’m only going to say this once. If nature isn’t kept healthy, humans won’t survive. Simple as that. Me, I could give a damn, with or without humans. I’m the ocean. I covered this entire planet once. And I can always cover it again. That’s all I have to say.
I am coral. Some people think I’m just a rock. When, in fact, I’m the largest thing alive on this planet. I’m so big, I can be seen from space. But for how long? I grow for almost 250 million years. And humans came along and now ⅕ of me is gone. Sure, l live at the bottom of the sea. And you might not see me that often. But you do need me. Do you realize that ¼ of all marine life depends on me? I am the nursery of the sea. Little fish depend on me for food. And to hide from the big fish And guess who eats the big fish? That’s right. You do. I’m the protein factory for the world. Yet you raise the temperature of the ocean so I can’t live here anymore. And when big storms and tsunamis barrel through the ocean, I’m your fortress. Yet you tear me apart with dynamite and poison me with cyanide. Well, here’s a crazy thought: Stop killing me.
How come you're so smart? Kid, I've been around a really long time.
As a matter of fact our kind has been around longer than just about anything. I've seen just about everything.  Really? Like what? Well I've seen weather. All kinds of weather. And lots of critters? Yeah. At first there were just some bugs and spiders then some mice and rats and some rabbits and bears and skunks. Then all of a sudden there were humans. And all hell broke loose. Why? What did the humans do? Well they changed wolves into dogs, rivers into lakes and us into wood. They started using the planet like it was put there just for them. Act like they've got an extra one laying around. Why do they do that? Why don't they understand? I don't know. If they don't figure out that they're part of nature rather than just using nature, they probably won't be around to see you grow up.
I am home. I give you comfort, I shelter your family. See me for who I am. Home, sweet home. I am your refuge. I am the floor that supports you. The foundation that keeps you steady. The walls that give you shelter. The roof that protects you. I am your home. If you don't take care of me, I cannot take care of you.
I am the Mountain. I am nature's oldest temple. My glaciers and streams provide the water you drink. My forests, your wood, your clean air. From up here, I see how you've come to treat this world. You used to recharge your body and soul in the calm of my forests. You once climbed my peaks, seeking enlightenment. Now you take what you want, and contemplate only your own gain. Open your eyes while there's still time. Because there's one more thing I see clearly: the cliff you’re on — and the rocks below.

Кстати, хотите термин из разряда «профессиональной коммуникации» тех, кто занимается проблемами сохранения животного мира? Это RANGE COUNTRY

Safari Club International puts it: Hunting is beneficial to wildlife and these range countries know how to manage their elephant populations. 

Если вы профессионально занимаетесь этой темой, то изучите смысл этого термина самостоятельно:

Range state is a term generally used in zoogeography and conservation biology to refer to any nation that exercises jurisdiction over any part of a range which a particular species, taxon or biotope inhabits, or crosses or overflies at any time on its normal migration route.

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.