Congress, Senate, impeachment и другие «страшные» слова
Если вы учите английский язык, или учите ему других, нужно, чтобы ваш «политический» словарный запас не ограничивался бы словом president, когда речь заходит о США.
Вы наверняка знаете, что в демократическом государстве власть разделяется на законодательную и исполнительную. В США высший орган законодательной власти – двухпалатный парламент или Конгресс, состоящий из Сената и Палаты представителей (House of Representatives). В Сенате каждый штат имеет по два представителя.
Сенаторы избираются сроком на шесть лет. Количество Representatives от каждого штата в House прямо пропорционально численности данного штата, которая определяется каждые десять лет.
В конце 2019 года Демократическая партия США владела большинством в Палате Представителей, поэтому решила воспользоваться ситуацией и сместить Д.Трампа с поста президента с помощью процедуры так называемого импичмента. Если в свое время Била Клинтона пытались отстранить от власти за его ложь о сексуальных приключениях, то Трампа демократы решили убрать, когда стала известна информация о его переговорах с президентом Украины Зеленским. На самом деле, попытки найти на него компромат начались еще во время избирательной кампании 2016 года и усилились после избрания на президентский пост.
Since Donald Trump was elected in 2016, Democrats have been on a crusade to stop him by any means. I believe the American people, the fairest people on this earth, they believe that everyone should be treated equally under the law no matter what your station you occupy in life: rich, poor, president, factory worker – fair! This process has been anything but fair. For two years, we’ve been told that then candidate Donald Trump colluded with Russians to interfere with our elections. Two years, millions of dollars spent in a Mueller investigation, no collusion. You’d think after being that wrong, Democrats would finally decide to work on the problems that the American people send us here to do. You’d be wrong again. Then we were told that the president withheld money to the Ukrainians in a quid pro quo. No, no, a bribery, no abuse of power.
Обратите внимание на слова ‘collude’и ‘collusion’ (сговариваться, сговор). Crusade - Крестовый поход.
На фоне успехов США в экономике шансы победить его на следующих выборах у претендентов на пост Президента США от Демократической партии США не было никаких. Поэтому отстранение от власти в результате импичмента – это единственный выход для демократов в сложившейся ситуации.
Пара слов о том, за что в конце 2019 года House of Representative большинством голосов проголосовал за объявление импичмента Д.Трампу. США оказывало экономическую и военную помощь Украине для сдерживания агрессии со стороны РФ. При этом США делало попытки борьбы с коррупцией в этой стране. Президент США, судя по всему, решил соединить «приятное с полезным»: приостановил помощь Украине, попросив расследовать одно коррупционное дело, в котором мог бы быть замешан сын его конкурента на выборах от Демократической партии (Joe Biden). Впоследствии Трамп создавал препятствия расследованию этого power abuse. Несмотря на то, что расследование коррупции с участием фирмы, в которой работал сын Байдена не было, а приостановленная помощь Украине была продолжена, этот инцидент лег в основу первой статьи, по которой был объявлен импичмент. Вторая статья – за противодействие расследованию этого обвинения.
The president Trump was impeached for one reason - because he deserved it. Because no president has ever done what he did, no president has betrayed his oath the way this president has by taking taxpayer dollars and using it as a bribe, as an extortion, as a lure to get dirt on his political opponents. And no president has ever issued a complete blanket refusal to talk, to produce any documents or any witnesses to legitimate congressional investigation. That’s why he was impeached.
The facts in this case are as simple as they are tragic. Witness after witness attested to these facts. No one has credibly refuted them. President Trump tried to coerce Ukraine to interfere in the 2020 elections. He used the power of his office for personal political gain. By withholding aid to Ukraine, the president has endangered our ally, Ukraine, and undermined our own national security. And when he got caught, the president attempted to cover up the crime and shut down any investigation by obstructing Congress.
to attest - to show something or to say or prove that something is true
to coerce - to persuade someone forcefully to do something that they are unwilling to do
to withhold - to refuse to give something or to keep back something
to refute - to say or prove that a person, statement, opinion, etc. is wrong or false
Как все было на самом деле, судить сложно. В США в этом случае правда зависит от партийной принадлежности. Все республиканцы проголосовали против импичмента, почти все демократы – за. Это обстоятельство очень сильно «девальвирует» важность принятого решения, так как в основе идеи и процедуры импичмента не должно быть место политическим пристрастиям. Есть такое прилагательное – partisan: feeling, showing, or deriving from strong and sometimes blind adherence to a particular party, faction, cause, or person (exhibiting, characterized by, or resulting from partisanship). Еще говорили, что разделение по party lines не говорит в пользу объективности импичмента. Есть еще противоположность этому прилагательному –
Существительное partisan отличается от guerilla: partisans воюют на стороне правительства против вторгшихся на территорию страны врагов; guerillas хотят свергнуть правительство или добиться каких-то сепаратистских целей. Пример использования прилагательных:
This is the day the founding fathers feared when they granted Congress the power of impeachment where we have a political party so dead set against the president that they will do anything to impeach him and they’re about to get away with it simply because they have the votes. But that’s not how this process is supposed to work. It’s not meant to be dictated by a thin, partisan majority, nor is it meant to be used when an election is just around the corner. Impeachment is so divisive to the country that unless there’s something so compelling and overwhelming and bipartisan, I don’t think we should go down that path because it divides the nation. And that’s exactly what’s happened. And when we walk out of here tonight, we all know how this result’s going to go. The Democrats are voting for this. Not one Republican is breaking. This is not bipartisan. The American people are disgusted with the United States House of Representatives and we bring shame upon this body today by moving forward with this impeachment.
To be ‘dead’ set = to be completely opposed to something. Еще один пример использования этой идиомы.
Israel and much of the Arab world are dead set against the nuclear deal.
Выше уже было отмечено, что нам трудно судить о справедливости решения демократов, но нужно знать, за что предусмотрен импичмент (treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors – особо тяжкие преступления и проступки), то становится понятно, что справедливость возможна только на bipartisan основе. А лучше на основе судебного решения. Но демократы решили действовать решительно:
Resolved, That Donald J. Trump, President of the United States, is impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors and that the following articles of impeachment be exhibited to the United States Senate: Articles of impeachment exhibited by the House of Representatives of the United States of America in the name of itself and of the people of the United States of America, against Donald J. Trump, President of the United States of America, in maintenance and support of its impeachment against him for high crimes and misdemeanors.
Решение House of Representatives об импичменте, конечно, было неприятно для Трампа, так как он попал в этот «клуб»:
Однако это решение привело бы к отставке Трампа только в том случае, если бы в Сенате большинство не принадлежало бы республиканцам. Об этом ниже.
Перед тем, как вашему вниманию будут предоставлены довольно длинные документы, необходимо немного ознакомиться с формальным языком, который обычно используется в Конгрессе. Председатель обращается к членам собрания так: gentleman, gentlewoman (gentlelady).
Gentleman from New York. Gentlelady is recognized for 1 minute.
Фраза с ‘recognize’ означает, что женщина получила 1 минуту для выступления. Иногда говорят ‘the floor is yours’:
Закрепите слово ‘recognized’ на фоне возмущенного ‘point of order’ – эту фразу говорят председателю, когда хотят указать на нарушение порядка ведения собрания:
Есть неведомое для политической реальности России понятие - сhecks and balances: the system of checks and balances is an important part of the Constitution. With checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This way, no one branch becomes too powerful. Each branch “checks” the power of the other branches to make sure that the power is balanced between them.
The founding fathers included the impeachment process in the Constitution to uphold our values and to maintain the checks and balances that are essential to separation of powers and to democracy. They knew way back in 1787 that a president could abuse the power of the office. In fact, they adopted the phrase ‘high crimes and misdemeanors’ from the phrase that had been used in English Parliament since 1386.
Вы это понятие встретите часто, если будете анализировать феномен демократически устроенного государства. Еще одно слово, которое имеет много значений, но в нашем «топике» важно знать смысла глагола to yield. Это просто «передавать» (свое время выступления).
For example, the manager might say: I yield two minutes to the gentleman from California. Once the time is yielded, it belongs to the Member who is speaking until he or she finishes and ‘yields back’ his or her time, or until the presiding officer announces that the time has expired.
May God bless America. I yield back the balance of my time. – Madam Speaker, I now yield one minute to the gentlelady from New York Miss Velaskes. – That, Madam Speaker, says it all. I yield back.
Ниже будут зачитаны две статьи, предъявленные Трампу. Для вас может быть новым слово subpoena – повестка (to subpoena – вызывать по повестке). В принципе, изучать эти статьи подробно необязательно. После них будет также выступление Н.Пелоси - председателя (спикера) Палаты представителей Конгресса США. Имея большинство в Палате Представителей, Н.Пелоси прекрасно знала исход голосования, поэтому приготовила конгрессменов к исходу голосования – запретила им радоваться запланированной победе. Демократы – гораздо больше лицемеры, чем республиканцы. Поэтому они изобразили трагизм необходимости импичмента президенту страны:
She has been pitch-perfect. Almost pitch-perfect, I would say. And she understand the solemnity of the moment. And this is her flock – these Democrats. And some of them are young. Some of them are incredibly partisan. And she warned them – no applause! This is not a time for applause. And that look could kill. – Article I is adopted.
Pitch perfect = sensitive to or having exactly the right tone or style
Вы знаете уже достаточно, для того, чтобы похвастать осведомленностью перед знатоками языка. Но никогда не стоит останавливаться. Переходим статьям, по которым был объявлен импичмент.
ARTICLE I: ABUSE OF POWER. The Constitution provides that the House of Representatives "shall have the sole Power of Impeachment" and that the President "shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors". In his conduct of the office of President of the United States—and in violation of his constitutional oath faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and, to the best of his ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States, and in violation of his constitutional duty to take care that the laws be faithfully executed—Donald J. Trump has abused the powers of the Presidency, in that: Using the powers of his high office, President Trump solicited the interference of a foreign government, Ukraine, in the 2020 United States Presidential election. He did so through a scheme or course of conduct that included soliciting the Government of Ukraine to publicly announce investigations that would benefit his reelection, harm the election prospects of a political opponent, and influence the 2020 United States Presidential election to his advantage. President Trump also sought to pressure the Government of Ukraine to take these steps by conditioning official United States Government acts of significant value to Ukraine on its public announcement of the investigations. President Trump engaged in this scheme or course of conduct for corrupt purposes in pursuit of personal political benefit. In so doing, President Trump used the powers of the Presidency in a manner that compromised the national security of the United States and undermined the integrity of the United States democratic process. He thus ignored and injured the interests of the Nation.
President Trump engaged in this scheme or course of conduct through the following means: President Trump—acting both directly and through his agents within and outside the United States Government—corruptly solicited the Government of Ukraine to publicly announce investigations into—A) a political opponent, former Vice President Joseph R. Biden, Jr.; and B) a discredited theory promoted by Russia alleging that Ukraine—rather than Russia—interfered in the 2016 United States Presidential election. 2) With the same corrupt motives, President Trump—acting both directly and through his agents within and outside the United States Government—conditioned two official acts on the public announcements that he had requested—A) the release of $391 million of United States taxpayer funds that Congress had appropriated on a bipartisan basis for the purpose of providing vital military and security assistance to Ukraine to oppose Russian aggression and which President Trump had ordered suspended; and B) a head of state meeting at the White House, which the President of Ukraine sought to demonstrate continued United States support for the Government of Ukraine in the face of Russian aggression. 3) Faced with the public revelation of his actions, President Trump ultimately released the military and security assistance to the Government of Ukraine, but has persisted in openly and corruptly urging and soliciting Ukraine to undertake investigations for his personal political benefit. These actions were consistent with President Trump's previous invitations of foreign interference in United States elections. In all of this, President Trump abused the powers of the Presidency by ignoring and injuring national security and other vital national interests to obtain an improper personal political benefit. He has also betrayed the Nation by abusing his high office to enlist a foreign power in corrupting democratic elections. Wherefore President Trump, by such conduct, has demonstrated that he will remain a threat to national security and the Constitution if allowed to remain in office, and has acted in a manner grossly incompatible with self-governance and the rule of law. President Trump thus warrants impeachment and trial, removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States.
Wherefore = therefore. Слово используется только в официальных документах (иногда в современных религиозных текстах).
ARTICLE II: OBSTRUCTION OF CONGRESS The Constitution provides that the House of Representatives "shall have the sole Power of Impeachment" and that the President "shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors". In his conduct of the office of President of the United States—and in violation of his constitutional oath faithfully to execute the office of President of the United States and, to the best of his ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States, and in violation of his constitutional duty to take care that the laws be faithfully executed—Donald J. Trump has directed the unprecedented, categorical, and indiscriminate defiance of subpoenas issued by the House of Representatives pursuant to its "sole Power of Impeachment". President Trump has abused the powers of the Presidency in a manner offensive to, and subversive of, the Constitution, in that: The House of Representatives has engaged in an impeachment inquiry focused on President Trump's corrupt solicitation of the Government of Ukraine to interfere in the 2020 United States Presidential election. As part of this impeachment inquiry, the Committees undertaking the investigation served subpoenas seeking documents and testimony deemed vital to the inquiry from various Executive Branch agencies and offices, and current and former officials. In response, without lawful cause or excuse, President Trump directed Executive Branch agencies, offices, and officials not to comply with those subpoenas. President Trump thus interposed the powers of the Presidency against the lawful subpoenas of the House of Representatives, and assumed to himself functions and judgments necessary to the exercise of the "sole Power of Impeachment" vested by the Constitution in the House of Representatives.
President Trump abused the powers of his high office through the following means: 1) Directing the White House to defy a lawful subpoena by withholding the production of documents sought therein by the Committees. 2) Directing other Executive Branch agencies and offices to defy lawful subpoenas and withhold the production of documents and records from the Committees—in response to which the Department of State, Office of Management and Budget, Department of Energy, and Department of Defense refused to produce a single document or record. 3) Directing current and former Executive Branch officials not to cooperate with the Committees—in response to which nine Administration officials defied subpoenas for testimony, namely John Michael "Mick" Mulvaney, Robert B. Blair, John A. Eisenberg, Michael Ellis, Preston Wells Crriffith, Russell T. Yought, Michael Duffey, Brian McCormaek, and T. Ulrich Brechbuhl. These actions were consistent with President Trump's previous efforts to undermine United States Government investigations into foreign interference in United States elections. Through these actions, President Trump sought to arrogate to himself the right to determine the propriety, scope, and nature of an impeachment inquiry into his own conduct, as well as the unilateral prerogative to deny any and all information to the House of Representatives in the exercise of its "sole Power of Impeachment". In the history of the Republic, no President has ever ordered the complete defiance of an impeachment inquiry or sought to obstruct and impede so comprehensively the ability of the House of Representatives to investigate "high Crimes and Misdemeanors". This abuse of office served to cover up the President's own repeated misconduct and to seize and control the power of impeachment—and thus to nullify a vital constitutional safeguard vested solely in the House of Representatives. In all of this, President Trump has acted in a manner contrary to his trust as President and subversive of constitutional government, to the great prejudice of the cause of law and justice, and to the manifest injury of the people of the United States.
Wherefore, President Trump, by such conduct, has demonstrated that he will remain a threat to the Constitution if allowed to remain in office, and has acted in a manner grossly incompatible with self-governance and the rule of law. President Trump thus warrants impeachment and trial, removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States.
Далее следует выступление Н.Пелоси. В нем есть интересная фраза ‘A republic, if we can keep it’. Не каждая нация, получив свободу, способна ее сохранить..
My colleagues, this morning and every morning when we come together, members rise and pledge allegiance to the flag. Every day, all across America, children in schools, members of the military, officials and those civically engaged also pledge allegiance to the flag. Let us recall what that pledge says: “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands – one nation under God , indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” The republic for which it stands is what we are here to talk about today. A republic, if we can keep it. We gather today under the dome of this temple of democracy to exercise one of the most solemn powers that this body can take: the impeachment of the president of the United States. No member, regardless of party or politics, comes to Congress to impeach a president, but every one of us, as our first act as a member of Congress, stood on this historic House floor before our beautiful American flag and raised our hands in this sacred oath, “I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, so help me God.” For 230 years, members have taken that sacred oath, which makes us custodians of the Constitution. When our founders declared independence, established our new nation, they crafted a system of government unlike anyone has ever seen before. A republic, starting with the sacred words, “We the people.” For centuries, Americans have fought and died to defend democracy for the people. But very sadly now, our founders’ vision of a republic is under threat from actions from the White House. That is why today, as speaker of the House, I solemnly and sadly open the debate on the impeachment of the president of the United States. If we do not act now, we would be derelict in our duty. It is tragic that the president’s reckless actions make impeachment necessary. He gave us no choice. What we are discussing today is the established fact that the president violated the Constitution.It is a matter of fact that the president is an ongoing threat to our national security and the integrity of our elections, the basis of our democracy. Hundreds of historians, legal scholars, and former prosecutors, regardless of party, have stated that the president committed impeachable offenses. Since today is a national civics lesson, though a sad one, I submit these documents for the record and commend them for students to study.
What we are discussing today is established fact that the president, again, violated the Constitution. It is a matter of fact that the president is, again, an ongoing threat to our national security. And the testimony of decorated war heroes, distinguished diplomats, and patriotic career public servants, some of the President’s own appointees over the past weeks have told us this. The president used the power of his public office to obtain an improper personal political benefit at the expense of America’s national security. When the president weakens a democratic ally that is advancing American security interests by fighting an American adversary, the president weakens America. This abuse of power also jeopardizes the integrity of our elections. All Americans agree that American voters should choose our president, not some foreign government. The founders understood that it is profoundly corrosive for our democracy for a president to invite interference in our elections. As George Washington, our nation’s patriot under whose gaze we stand today warned, history and experience proves that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of Republican government. George Washington.
Baneful – «губительный», «пагубный». American adversary – это Россия…
Sadly, the American people have witnessed further wrongs of the president which necessitate the second article of impeachment, obstruction of Congress. When the president’s wrongdoing was revealed, he launched an unprecedented, indiscriminate and categorical campaign of defiance and obstruction. Never before in the history of our nation have we seen a president declare and act as if he’s above the law. The president goes even so far as to say and act of this absurdity when he says Article II says, “I can do whatever I want.” No, he doesn’t. That recklessness is a profound violation of the constitution and our republic, which endured because of our system of separation of power, three co-equal branches, each a check and balance on the other, a republic, again, if we can keep it. The founders’ great fear of a rogue or corrupt president is the very reason why they enshrined impeachment in the Constitution. As one founder, William Davey of North Carolina, warned, unless the Constitution contained an impeachment provision, a president might spare no efforts or means, whatever, to get himself reelected. Another founder, George Mason, insisted that the president who procured his appointment in the first instance through improper and corrupt acts might repeat his guilt and return to power. We in Congress (Article I, the legislative branch) must stand up and make clear to the American people and to all people that this body still stands by the principles enshrined in the Constitution and defended by generations of Americans. Last week, in observance of the 75th anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge, members traveled to that hallowed ground to express our gratitude to the heroes of freedom who sacrificed everything to secure victory of freedom over tyranny, not just for America, but for the world. The veterans of that battle who were there, in their 90s, told us how after the war was won, the Europeans to whom they liberated would ask, “Why did you risk us? You don’t know us? And give your lives to save us, we’re not Americans.” And our men would say, “We came here to fight for you, not because you are Americans, but because we are Americans.”
Как вы думаете, что означает форма головного убора на всех персонажах этой карикатуры? Ответ:
A tin foil hat is a hat made from one or more sheets of aluminium foil, or a piece of conventional headgear lined with foil, worn in the belief or hope that it shields the brain from threats such as electromagnetic fields, mind control, and mind reading. The notion of wearing homemade headgear for such protection has become a popular stereotype and byword for paranoia, persecutory delusions, and belief in pseudoscience and conspiracy theories. "Tin foil" is a common misnomer for aluminium foil; packaging metal foil was formerly made out of tin before it was replaced with aluminium.
Aluminium (UK). Aluminum (US).
Эта карикатура поможет вам запомнить еще одно полезное слово.
Этот модуль был написан 22 декабря 2019 года. Демократы не спешили передать свой «ошеломляющий успех» в Сенат, зная, что проиграют решение по отстранению Трампа от власти.
Одна интрига в заключение этого явно незавершенного модуля: попробуйте понять смысл этого видео. Какой смысл в упомянутых цветах?
PS В русском языке есть слово-страшилка по названием Госдеп. О нем в модуле ничего не было. Это всего лишь United States Department of State или State Department - орган исполнительной власти при правительстве США, который консультирует президента и поддерживает международные отношения. По сути Министерство иностранных дел.