Evita (part I)
Для завершения изучения основных произведений Ллойда Уэббера мы отправляемся в Аргентину. Мы сразу «убиваем двух птиц» ( kill two birds with one stone): во-первых, знакомимся с историческими фактами, на которых основан мюзикл Evita, во-вторых, приближаемся ближе к пониманию настроений и политических процессов, происходящих в Латинской Америке. Скорее всего, вы уже слышали эту мелодию, но дальше Don’t cry for me Argentina в суть проникнуть не пытались. А зря. Очень расширяет сознание. Красота музыки не совсем вписывается в некоторый цинизм слов о том, что Эвита не заслуживает такого внимания, если только «мы все» его не заслуживаем. Игра на публику и популизм – главный талант жены аргентинского диктатора Перона даже после ее смерти.
Первое знакомство с главной героиней этого модуля в облегченном варианте:
Немного хроники, после чего перейдем к мюзиклу:
In 1952, Evita died of cancer at the age of 33. Millions of Argentinians, especially the poor had revered her as a saint. Quite apart from their attitude for her tireless efforts to improve social welfare for the workers, they felt she belonged to them and her funeral was the occasion for the biggest display of mourning ever seen in Argentina.
quite apart: used to indicate that you are aware of one aspect of a situation, but that you are going to focus on another aspect (помимо).
Revered as a saint – почитали, как святую
Однако, Аргентина при Пероне и его супруге – это не демократия, а диктатура. После смерти диктаторов у недалеких людей всегда паника и чувство неопределенности, которое трансформируется в hysterical sorrow:
To go to town – идиома, означающая ‘to do something thoroughly, enthusiastically, or extravagantly’.
Градус сарказма повышается. Тем, кто привык в торжественной печали слушать песни мюзикла, должны готовиться к смене настроений…
In a roundabout way = to imply something without saying it; to say something indirectly
To get by = «прожить, выжить». Этот фразовый глагол еще несколько раз встретится тем, кто посмотрит весь мюзикл. Сначала Эвите пришлось выживать одной в Буэнос-Айресе, и эта фраза сопровождала ее постоянно. Добившись успеха, ей пришлось выгонять конкурентку из постели президента:
На этих кадрах Эвита (Мадонна) изображена сначала в роли брошенной девушки, а впоследствии – в роли той, которая выгнала из постели Перона девушку-подростка. Фразовый глагол ‘to get by’ используется не только в мюзиклах о девушках:
Как вам нравятся такое исполнение?
Пора определяться по поводу того, что вам нравится больше (if any). Ведь следующий модуль будет весь состоять из фрагментов рок-оперы с участием А.Бандераса и Мадонны. Сравниваем:
Сравните теперь два таких эпизода, описывающих состояние нерешительности и роль женщины, способной не только повлиять на мужчину-лидера, но и помочь ему в борьбе. Попробуйте понять смысл аплодисментов на 3-й минуте.
Вы немного познакомились с музыкальными произведениями и с историческими фактами, на которых они основываются. Но это было слишком поверхностное ознакомление. С мюзиклом вы познакомитесь в следующем модуле очень подробно, если захотите.
Ниже будут приведены подробные документальные видеоматериалы с субтитрами. Эти материалы чрезвычайно полезны для понимания истории Аргентины, а, значит, Латинской Америки в целом. Дикая смесь социалистических идей и ничем не ограниченного капитализма – главная черта стран континента.
Peron brought to Argentina a new sense of national identity and a new political creed called “justicialism”, ill-defined ideology, which he claimed, was a third way between communism and capitalism, and which favored the workers against entrenched oligarchs.
Посмотрим теперь на фигуру Перона в несколько ином ключе.
Think of the stereotypical dictator. He censors the press, violates civil rights, and removes opponents from important government positions. Doesn't sound like he would be too popular, does it? Well, imagine that the very same dictator is immensely popular among large sections of the population. It sounds almost too good to be true. This seemingly impossible contradiction of a popular dictator came to fruition in the form of Juan Domingo Peron. In fact, Juan Peron was so popular that he served as president of Argentina for 10 years, was removed in a military coup, and then called back 18 years later to be president again. During his tenure as president, Peron was extremely popular among workers, despite his dictatorial style of governing. In this video, we will look at: Peron's rise to power; the role of Peron's second wife, Eva Peron, in his rise to power; the tenets of Peronism; Peron's removal from power; Peron's return to Argentina 20 years later. Born in 1895, Juan Peron came from a modest but not poor family. He made a name for himself by rising up the ranks in the Argentine military. When domestic problems arose in Argentina in 1943, Juan Peron was part of an opportunistic group of military officers that overthrew the Argentine civilian government. Together, these officers led by Pedro Ramirez, joined together to create a military controlled government. At first, Peron seemed to have a minor role in this government as he was named to be Secretary of Labor and Social Welfare. Peron though, used this position to his advantage and built strong relationships with labor groups. For example, he helped settle labor disputes and introduce new benefits for workers. Peron's interaction with labor groups magnified his power, eventually allowing him to take charge of the Department of War and the vice presidency. In 1945 he married Eva Duarte, a successful radio actress, magnifying even more his celebrity status in society, but the old adage is that too much fame is not always a good thing. Other members of the military grew jealous of Peron's new found popularity. As a result, in October of 1945, Peron was forced to resign and was arrested by the military. The arrest of Peron was intended to limit his power, but it actually had the reverse effect. The workers union that Peron had developed such strong relationships with immediately took to the streets in massive protest demonstrations. Peron's wife, affectionately called “Evita” by the Argentine public, added fuel to these protests with her own calls on the radio for civil disobedience. As a result of the protests, Peron was released from prison. The next year, in 1946…
…in 1946, Peron was elected president of Argentina. A prominent part of Juan Peron’s rise to power was his second wife – Eva Peron. Eva Duarte was born in a poor suburb of Buenos Aires. Eva Peron became an actress in Buenos Aires where she began to gain fame in Argentina. Her romantic relationship with Juan Peron became a source of national gossip, and her marriage to Peron helped boost Peron's chances of being president. During Peron's presidency, Eva Peron played a prominent role in politics that few women had previously enjoyed in Argentine history. She facilitated communication between Peron and labor unions and established a women's branch of Peron's political party. In 1951, Eva Peron even tried to become Peron's vice president, but male chauvinism inside the Argentine military prevented that from happening. In 1952, she died of cancer, causing Juan Peron to not only lose his wife but a major political asset. So what was Peronism, and what did Juan Peron believe in? The truth is we are not too sure because Peron never articulated his beliefs in a clear coherent way. As Peron stated, “Peronism is not learned, nor just talked about: one feels it, or else disagrees. Peronism is a question of the heart rather than of the head.” Despite the vagueness of Peron's position, we will attempt here to outline some basic tenets. Peronism is like a works pizza that has all the toppings a pizza restaurant offers. I say this because Peronism wasn't so much a clear ideology, as an ideology that borrowed from all other ideologies.
Peron was first elected President of Argentina in 1946. From the beginning, he drew his support from the great mass of underprivileged Argentinians – the des-camisados or shirtless ones, for many of them he was an idol, the first Argentinian leader, who really did something to the common man. Peron did not rule alone, he shared both his popularity and even some of his power with his wife Evita – the former actress, whom he married just before he became President. Despite his adulation by the masses, Peron was often a ruthless President, crushing opposition and ruling through the army, the police and labor unions. Evita too had a will of iron behind the charming smiles and exerted considerable influence ever Peron himself. Peron brought to Argentina a new sense of national identity and a new political creed called “justicialism”, an ill-defined ideology, which he claimed, was a third way between communism and capitalism, and which favored the workers against entrenched oligarchs. In 1952, Evita died of cancer at the age of 33. Millions of Argentinians, especially the poor had revered her as a saint. Quite apart from their attitude for her tireless efforts to improve social welfare for the workers, they felt she belonged to them and her funeral was the occasion for the biggest display of mourning ever seen in Argentina. Peron’s position was never the same again and three years later, he was toppled from power by a military coup. His portraits were burned, his supporters killed and he was forced to flee the country. Though his 9-year rule was over his philosophy did not die. After 5 years in various South American countries Peron finally settled in Spain, where he lived a quiet life in the suburb of Madrid. Though really seeking publicity he kept in close touch with events back home. His third wife Isabel acted as an official secretary and was sent on several missions to Argentina and elsewhere. In Argentina itself the workers refused to let Peronism die, the memory of Evita especially was cherished down the years hardly an anniversary of her death passing with some kind of official recognition from the unions of the active justicialist party. Every year Peron promised he would return and in 1964, he actually made an attempt that was turned back when he reached Brazil. Such tactics, though apparently futile gave encouragement to his supporters. Many of whom constantly made trouble for the governments that succeeded Peron after 1955.
The shockwaves of the Great Depression battered the stock exchange in Buenos Aires and it was worse in the rural areas. Argentina was badly hurt as crop prices plunged by 50%. High unemployment forced many nations in Europe and South America to set up public relief programs and the political scenario quickly polarized. Capitalism and democracy were widely perceived as the source of all evils. Hitler, Stalin and Mussolini were proposing a new agenda and new world order. Once again, the world stood at the brink of war. Argentina was closely following developments across the Atlantic. The working class felt close to the struggle of the Soviet Union, while middle and upper classes were divided over the sympathies for the allies than the axis of Nazi-fascism. The Argentine armed forces clearly influenced by the German and Italian counterparts found inspiration in the standoff of the latter against the perceived threat of Liberals, Jews and Capitalism at large. In September of 1930, a pro-fascist coup led by general Uriburu inaugurated an era of military intolerance, pseudo-democratic governments and puppet regimes that would last almost half a century. Argentina was now marching to the drums of Fascist Rome and Nazi Berlin.
Evita was finally working in the theater, but the pay did not cover the high cost of living in Buenos Aires. Like so many other girls trying to make it in show business, she often resorted to dating those who could afford a good meal. Evita carefully choose her occasional dates. In a short time, she managed to meet some influential men who recognized her potential and were willing to help. Samuel Yankelevich, owner of a major broadcast station, was among the first and most powerful. Yankelevich gave Evita her first opportunity in front of a live audience. It was a major break. Emilio Kartulowicz, publisher of Sintonia magazine, boosted her image with the publication of a few articles, and Evita’s picture appeared on the cover of the magazine she regarded as the bible for success. Each new acquaintance became a step in the right direction. Soon she was answering calls for modeling jobs, publicity and advertising. The photos taken during this period prove that the sixteen-year-old was now turning into a beautiful young woman. In 1937, Evita appeared briefly in the motion picture “Seconds Out” a film directed by Chas de Cruz, a local celebrity. Then, more theatre and radio - and more secondary roles in “B” movies. Five years after landing in Buenos Aires, Evita was steadily climbing a ladder that would lead to the greatest accumulation of influence and power ever accomplished by any woman in the history of Argentina.
Peron was a new challenge. It would turn out to be a match made in Heaven: Cinderella and Prince Charming. Colonel Perón was much more than Evita had hoped for. He was handsome, twice her age, in charge of the rising regime and a father figure, not only to Evita, but to the entire Nation as well.
Мы не включили в модуль интересную фразу, спетую Бандерасом на похоронах Эвиты: It's our funeral too. Есть пословица It's not my funeral, которую, например,говорят, когда выражают мнение о возможном неблагожелательном исходе какого-то события, но при этом предупреждение игнорируется. Типа "Ладно, не мое дело".
Перед тем, как переходить к просмотру наиболее значимых больших фрагментов мюзикла с участием Мадонны, вы можете послушать несколько фрагментов из самой первой версии.
Но теперь вас будет отличать от сотен миллионов ее ценителей понимание темы.