00-79.5. Две Ирландии и IRA

IRA Northern Ireland

by

Две Ирландии                                                                        KW!

Послушайте начало веселой ирландской песни

Продолжение ниже.

Изучающим английский язык даже по старым советским стандартам нужно было знать «страну изучаемого языка». Как вы давно уже догадались, взгляды методистов нашей школы сходятся со взглядами советских ортодоксов только в этом вопросе. Итак, вы должны знать, что есть две Ирландии. Просто Ирландия – это независимое государство, член Европейского Союза с привычной для него валютой – euro. Столица – Дублин. Северная Ирландия - часть Соединённого Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии. Как вы можете догадаться, валюта – фунт стерлингов.

Вернемся к веселой песне:

Итак, опять политика: вы должны знать, что не все жители Северной Ирландии мечтали жить в составе Соединённого Королевства. В песне они зовутся Fre-Staters. Но кто-то хотел жить в объединенной стране и поплатился за это жизнью. Ведь Free-Staters call them Traitors, and at every chance they betray The Army of the People - the Official IRA.

IRA – это Ireland Republican Army. Боевая террористическая организация, которая боролась против британского управления. Неудивительно, что для кого-то они – просто борцы за свободу. Под видео в ютюбе была пара комментариев:

I'm 11 and love IRA I'm Scottish but hate getting called brittish

Irish are so hardcore that even they hippies sing about killing brits

Кстати, эти «борцы за свободу» убивали не только за доносительство, но и за самогоноварение и проституцию (они были фанатичными католиками). «Республиканцам» противостояли «юнионисты» и официальный Лондон. Кстати, IRA организовывало теракты и в Лондоне. Вот еще пара строчек из песни, из которых вы можете понять, что этим бандитам не мог не помогать Советский Союз:

There are no ways to stop a war of bigotry or greed                                                                                               The struggle is a worker's one, so every man might lead

Эта организация имела марксистские корни: «борьба рабочих», в которой все одинаково могут вести вперед. Возможно, вам будет интересно прочитать про помощь «ирландским друзьям» - про операцию под кодовым названием «Всплеск»:                                                                                 

Нелегальная передача ирландским друзьям оружия осуществляется путём его затопления в ночное время на глубину 40 — 42 метров в нейтральных водах в районе банки Стантон в 90 километрах от побережья Северной Ирландии. Разведывательный корабль «Редуктор» по нашей просьбе уже был в намеченной точке проведения операции, провёл предварительную разведку района и промер глубин. Подготовленное для затопления оружие доставляется сотрудниками КГБ в Мурманск к моменту выхода из базы очередного разведывательного корабля ВМФ, грузится на корабль и сопровождается сотрудником КГБ, который организует и проводит операцию «Всплеск» согласно утверждённому плану. «Трофейное немецкое оружие в количестве двух пулемётов, семидесяти автоматов и ста пистолетов „Вальтер“, обработанное смазкой западногерманского производства, и 41 600 патронов к нему будут упакованы в 14 пакетов, весом 81, 5 кг каждый. Упаковочный материал и другие принадлежности, используемые в операции, приобретены через возможности резидентур КГБ за рубежом.

Прошло несколько десятилетий со времен кровавых конфликтов, но бывший президент Венесуэлы, которому болезнь помешала построить социализм, так отреагировал на то, что журналист оказался из Ирландии:

Какое это отношение имеет ко дню сегодняшнему? Все просто: многие участники кровавых событий и их жертвы еще живы. Да и отношения Северной Ирландии с официальным Лондоном не лишены противоречий. Это один из относительно свежих сюжетов:

Это его продолжение: Police Chief Inspector Neil Beck said Wednesday that six shots were fired in "a blatant bid to murder police officers," during unrest in Northern Ireland's second city, known to some as Derry and officially called Londonderry, overnight. Groups of youths also lobbed more than a dozen petrol bombs from the Catholic-dominated Bogside area towards a Protestant neighborhood, police said.

Ирландские католики не давали женщинам право распоряжаться своим телом:

It is a controversial case - a 31-year old woman in Ireland died after suffering a miscarriage at the hospital. Many people said, an abortion which the hospital refused to perform, could have saved her life. Her husband is one of those people. Nick Robinson talks to the grieving widower.

Но людей разделяет не только религия, но и практические вопросы – например, граница с Ирландией, которая входит в Европейский Союз, из которого большинство жителей Великобритании решили выйти.

Есть и чисто символические проблемы, но для loyalists они чрезвычайно важны:

Well, Union flag is flying over Belfast City Hall to honor the Duchess of Cambridge who is celebrating her 31st birthday today. That is the first time the flag has been raised there since the City Council voted last month to stop flying the Union Jack year around. Instead it will only be flown on designated days like this one - Royal birthday time. Well, Council decisions of course have sparked weeks of protests as we have reported here. Officials in Northern Ireland fear that the unrest over the past week will scare off potential investors and cost jobs, all in the middle, of course, of an economic downturn. Neil Connolly reports. - Fireworks and petrol bombs, missiles, bricks, bolts, and bottles. This feels like it’s becoming the new norm for this part of this Belfast. A sixth consecutive night of violence as loyalist protesters clash with police with no letup in sight. Earlier this evening at one peaceful protest demonstrators told me of their frustration with political leaders. - There's more hurt than anger. We feel like everything's just been taken away from us, day in, daily. It's concession, concession, concession. - We're not going to back down. That's it. - What you think of the next generation here? Oh hey, I'm not... I'm not... I will tell you what. My kids will be brought up and see if the flag's still not up when he's older... he'll be doing the same thing. - But as these protests enter a fifth week politicians fear the violence scenes beamed around the world are costing Northern Ireland dearly.

Flag is flying – развевается. 

Обязательно разберитесь в сути конфликта, описанного в предыдущем видео. В противном случае вы не поймете современный характер противоречий в UK… 

Углубимся теперь в историю, которую вы поймете, посмотрев подборку сюжетов BBC и СNN. Начнем с недавней истории:

Queen Elisabeth has left the Irish Republic after an historic state visit. She ended her tour in the Southern city of Cork - one of the most staunchly Republican during the fight for Irish independence from Britain. Our royal correspondent Nicholas Witchell reports. - A final day in the Irish countryside. A helicopter to the green pastures of County Tipperary and a visit to the Rock of Cashel. Once the home ancient kings of Ireland, the setting today for one of the farewell moments of one of the most successful state visits of the Queen’s reign. Before she left, she met a local Sinn Fein official, the first and only time such as meeting has happened. There was just one further stop, Cork, capital of what used to be called the ‘Rebel County’. Today it became the most relaxed center the Queen has been to here, and for once, the crowds were able to get close. Across the river, a couple of hundred republicans shouted their protests, but they were very much the minority. The Queen was visiting the local market before heading to the airport and home. So, the visit is over, but how will it be judged? - Certainly in terms of impact, here in Ireland the visit has been considerable success. The thing is, Ireland will remember this visit, not just that the Queen came, but what she did and what she said. - And the reason people will talk about this visit in years to come, is because her words and deeds, have for most people drawn a line under the past.  In her speech on Wednesday the Queen said that this island’s history was full of heartache and pain. As she departed from Ireland, she could reflect that that history has been added to this week for the better.     

Sinn Fein – партия левого толка, боровшаяся за независимость Ирландии (активны в Ирландии и Северной Ирландии). Sinn Fein на ирландском языке (Gaelic) означает «мы сами» или что-то очень близкое по смыслу.

Обратите также внимание на первое предложение просмотренного сюжета. Прочтите этот обзор:

People often believe that they should use the indefinite article an in front of words like historic, horrific, or hotel. Are they right or wrong? Should you say ‘an historic event’ or ‘a historic event’? An is the form of the indefinite article that is used before a spoken vowel sound: it doesn’t matter how the written word in question is actually spelled. So, we say ‘an honor’, ‘an hour’, or ‘an heir’, for example, because the initial letter ‘h’ in all three words is not actually pronounced. By contrast we say ‘a hair’ or ‘a horse’ because, in these cases, the ‘h’ is pronounced. Today, though, these three words are generally pronounced with a spoken ‘h’ at the beginning and so it’s now more logical to refer to ‘a hotel’, ‘a historic event’, or ‘a horrific accident’.

Идем чуть глубже в историю. Университет Бостона в свое время организовал проект, который предусматривал интервью с участниками североирландского конфликта. Эту информацию требуют сейчас родственники тех, кто погиб:

DUBLIN — Northern Ireland police announced Thursday they will sue to obtain all of the audiotaped interviews of former militants who described their wartime careers to a Boston College oral history project, a move designed to reopen scores of "cold case" murder investigations in the British territory. Police last year successfully sued Boston College to obtain 11 interviews of Irish Republican Army veterans discussing the 1972 abduction, killing and secret burial of Jean McConville, a 38-year-old Belfast widowed mother of 10.

Any cold case involving Michael Jackson always generates a huge amount of public interest. 

Как вы догадались, речь о нераскрытом преступлении (совершенном в прошлом). Но это не всегда преступление: например, загадка гибели летчицы Эмели Эрхарт, которая исчезла, перелетая из Южной Америки в Австралию.

Еще «холоднее» становится, когда в расследование вмешивается современная политика. В 1989 году не без участия MI6 (британская разведка) так называемые paramilitary loyalists убили юриста-правозащитника Патрика Финукейна. Он очень досаждал британскому правительству эффективной защитой заключенных – членов IRA (в том числе тех, кто принимал участие в голодовках). Убийцы ворвались в его квартиру и выпустили в него 14 пуль, легко ранив при этом его супругу, которую вы увидите в следующем видео. По счастливой случайности не пострадали трое детей, которые спрятались под стол. Впоследствии независимый суд с международным участием признал вовлеченность в убийство MI6, что было также признано премьер-министром Д. Камероном, который встретился в 2011 году с семьей убитого правозащитника. Однако никто из MI6 наказан не был. Более того, «холодным» этот кейс делал тот факт, что долгое время не рассекречивались данные, находящиеся в США. Впоследствии эти записи были получены через суд на основе международных соглашений между US и UK:

An American university has been ordered by a court to hand over sensitive tapes of a former IRA prisoner talking about his role in the republican movement during the Troubles. The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is seeking to force Boston College to release the interviews with Anthony McIntyre, who was the lead researcher in the Belfast Project, a recorded oral archive of IRA and loyalist paramilitary testimonies. The subpoena to obtain McIntyre’s personal interviews has been served under the terms of a UK-US legal assistance treaty and the Crime (International Co-operation) Act 2003.

Обратите внимание на слово, которое пишется с большой буквы – the Troubles. Это то же самое, что Northern Ireland Conflict. Теперь вы готовы смотреть следующее видео

If they don´t give an enquiry into my husband´s murder, which was promised, it will just increase the suspicions, and there are many dissident republicans who are saying ‘same old Brits, nothing has changed, we still need to fight against the British government’ and it is giving ammunition to people to return to violence. - Across the Atlantic, in Washington DC’s polite political circles, Finucane is a welcome guest, speaking at a committee that tracks investigations into her husband’s murder.   

Вернемся в Северную Ирландию. Бывшие террористы часто становятся теми, с кем нужно договариваться. Примеры этой логики:

In Ireland the IRA says its 35-year armed campaign ended an hour ago. -Today’s decision by The IRA to move into a new peaceful mode is historic and represents a courageous and confident initiative.  This is a step of unparalleled magnitude in the recent history of Northern Ireland. In Ireland the IRA says it ended their armed operations after 35 years exactly one hour ago. The main Republican paramilitary group in Northern Ireland would turn to politics to achieve its aims of a united Ireland. The leader of its political wing Jerry Adams said “it is a time for peace and a time to engage”. The British and Irish prime-ministers broadly welcome the move. In its statement the IRA said its army council had ordered all IRA units to dump their arms. The statement went on: IRA volunteers have been instructed to help in the development of what he called “purely political and democratic programs through exclusively peaceful means”. The statement also said they should not engage in any other activities whatsoever. Jerry Adams, president of Sinn Fein- the IRA’s political wing, said in Dublin: the decision presents both the challenge and the opportunity for every nationalist and republican to achieve their objectives through peaceful means. - … there now exists, for the first time in the history of our struggle, the opportunity to achieve republican objectives through purely peaceful and democratic methods. - Today’s decision by the IRA to move into a new peaceful mode is historic and represents a courageous and confident initiative. It is truly momentous and is a defining point in the search for a lasting peace with justice. I want to comment the commitment of those who have taken this decision, I want to appeal as strongly as I can for unity and solidarity among Irish republicans and nationalists on the island of Ireland and beyond and for the struggle in this new dispensation to be carried forward with energy and enthusiasm.

Dispensation – особое разрешение, освобождение.

An IRA memorial garden on The Falls Road in Belfast. The IRA is fiercely proud of its history and what it sees as a sacrifices of its members. Many republicans never thought they’d see this day. A unilateral declaration by The IRA adopting peaceful and democratic means only and the unilateral scrapping of the weaponry. That, in essence, is what the IRA has said. The Sinn Fein president Jerry Adams started this process in April challenging the IRA to take courageous steps. In comments ahead of the IRA announcement he said: The IRA statement will challenge Irish republicans and nationalists. I appeal, he said, to everyone to carefully read what the Army has to say. He also said, the statement will challenge others, especially the two governments and the Unionists. Sinn Fein’s chief negotiator Marc McGuiness has gone to the USA to bridge supporters there and the State department - one piece of the jigsaw. Another – the release from prison of Sean Kelly who carried out the Shankill Road bombing in 1993. Seen here being released under The Good Friday agreement some years ago, he was rearrested last month. His new freedom is another key element for republicans. Unionists were furious at the release and skeptical in the extreme about anything the IRA might say. - Here we have a government that supposed to be fighting terrorists doing deals with terrorism. And, of course, there is nothing in that statement.  It’s quite clear from what I’ve heard from American today there is going to be no verification, no photographs, no real decommission. So the whole thing is an attempt to sell the people a pop. - The IRA was the most ruthless paramilitary organization in Europe responsible for around half of all the deaths and the troubles. And the crucial problem in the peace process has been the IRA’s arsenal with everyone else insisting all the weapons have to go. - For almost three decades the IRA left the trail of death and destruction across the United Kingdom. Thousands of extra troops were drafted in as Northern Ireland exploded into violence in the early 1970-s. The mayhem continued into the 80-s.

Good Friday agreement нужно изучать отдельно. In a nutshell: есть два уровня соглашений – международный (между UK, Ireland и Northern Ireland) и межпартийный. Issues: sovereignty, civil and cultural rights, decommissioning of weapons, demilitarization, justice, and policing.

The raw statistics are staggering: more than 3600 dead, one in every 400 people in Northern Ireland murdered. In Britain that would have meant a death to one of 140 thousand. Thirty years, tens of thousands injured, but statistics don’t tell a half of it. It was a slow slaughter peppered with massacres and atrocities from which whole generations are still recovering. One of the worst atrocities, now almost forgotten, happened here – in a tiny village of Claudy, where on a summer’s morning something happened that scars this village to this day. Nine men, women and children were killed by three bombs. - I can remember everything, every detail. That’s never left me. I don’t think it ever will leave me. - Gordon Miller lost his father David who was helping the injured when the third bomb exploded. - Total carnage. Body pieces everywhere. People screaming, shouting. The pain is cast in bronze today. The bombers thought to be from The IRA were never caught. 
But there was no consolation, no peace. The tit for tat killing went on. We can’t forget. We’ll never forget. Jean Lemmon’s husband – Josef – was shot dead. She has her own message for the IRA and all killers. – I want the last gun was destroyed. I would say it was over. - One man who has moved on and moved out is Stephen Ross – a survivor of the IRA bomber in Enniskillen that killed eleven. I remember the split second it happened. The noise absolutely horrendous and the next recollection – I have been pulled from the rubble. - Steven’s face had to be held together. Sixteen years on and peace, he says, isn’t just the absence of war. - Steven survived Enniskillen and married. That day the Omagh bomb exploded killing 29. And Omagh became another place whose name stands for slaughter. There were so many. The roll call of the war that never had the name – Bloody Friday, Bloody Sunday, so many bloody days. And now, today, the promise that they’re over.

The role call – перекличка (обычно людей)

The Remembrance Day bombing (also known as the Enniskillen bombing or Poppy Day massacre) took place on 8 November 1987 in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. A Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb exploded near the town's war memorial (cenotaph) during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony, which was being held to commemorate British military war dead. Eleven people (ten civilians and a police officer) were killed, many of them elderly, and 63 were injured. The IRA said it had made a mistake and that its target had been the British soldiers parading to the memorial. The bombing was strongly condemned by all sides and undermined support for the IRA and Sinn Fein. It also facilitated the passing of the Extradition Act, which made it easier to extradite IRA suspects from the Republic of Ireland to the United Kingdom. Loyalist paramilitaries responded to the bombing with revenge attacks on Catholic civilians. The bombing is often seen as a turning point in the Troubles, an incident that shook the IRA "to its core", and spurred on new efforts by Irish nationalists towards a political solution to the conflict.

Just about everyone who lives here or grew up here as I did, knows someone who was murdered, usually many more than one. It’s a small place with a lot of bad memories which needs more than just words to give it real peace. In Northern Ireland some say nothing is ever really over, but tonight after so many lost lives here they’re hoping all this is finally over.
When they were adopting the tactic of a jackboot It did nothing but make people stronger in their resolve. - Marian Price was an IRA operative who at 19 bombed London criminal courts. And she is unapologetic and unchanged in her views. - I believe that I was part of a war going on, a war of liberation for my country. - What pulled the rug out from under Marian Price and her like was the British change of tactics, not just the use of community police but an invitation from Britain and Ireland to The IRA’s political wing Sinn Fein to join in peace negotiations. As a result, violence has come to a virtual standstill. - So the British are winning? - Absolutely. The British have won. - What’s the tactics that’s worked for it? - The carrot. They dangled the carrot in front of certain people and they swallowed it…-  But the carrot is not the only method that British have used. Their long struggle with violent terrorism caused them to accept tradeoffs many Americans may not be ready to swallow. More security for less freedom. In the 1980-s the IRA began a bombing campaign aimed first at leaders of the country. They almost succeeded in killing Prime-minister Thatcher and her cabinet. And then later on that day the IRA issued a statement: today you were lucky, but just remember - you’ve got to be lucky all of the time. We only have to be lucky once. New technologies were deployed, especially closed circuit TV cameras used first in Belfast. Cameras that soon became omnipresent as both government and business bought them by the thousands.  Walking along this street or any street in the city of London one thing is almost certain – you’re on camera. A person living and working here can expect to be filmed dozens of times each day, either by police or by privately run surveillance cameras. An independent closed circuit operators group estimates that Britain has at least half a million live cameras. That’s one for every one hundred and twenty people. - Are the people here who regard this as an intrusion? - No, I think by and large public in Britain realize that those cameras are actually discriminating against thieves and potential terrorists. - Most people understand that these things are there to help to protect them against serious threats.

Трудно испытывать симпатию к этой, безусловно, сильной женщине, которая с 19 лет занималась террористической деятельностью (в частности, в Лондоне). Она считает себя солдатом IRA, а не террористкой, конечно.  В лондонской тюрьме она объявила голодовку и вынесла ужасы ‘force-feeding’. Этот процесс осуществляется через нос и через рот, для чего рот нужно жестко раскрыть и зафиксировать. Пища тут же измельчается с помощью блендера и вливается в отверстие. Эти детали вы можете найти, прочитав воспоминания этой дамы.

Обратите внимание на важную идиому, которую вы не могли не заметить в этом сюжете

In Northern Ireland the British Army has started to dismantle a number of watch towers in bases on the border with The Irish Republic following the IRA’s decision to end all military activity. Unionists who favor closer links with Britain have called the move irresponsible. As Denis Murray reports. - One of the army’s watch towers along the border in South Armagh. It’ll be gone in days. It’s been dismantled as a direct result of the IRA statement. The towers were seen by the Army as vital assets against the IRA campaign and by local people as intrusive, unnecessary, an symbols of British occupation. And some police and army stations are being closed or made less military looking. In a step by step process - there have been two steps in two days - The IRA’s announcement and this. But the politics haven’t moved on yet. Sinn Fein’s angered by the democratic unionists’ refusal to have direct talks with them and that is time they did. - Well I believe it’s now time for dialog between us. I think it is matter of when not if. - The DUP remains deeply skeptical about the IRA’s intentions. It is not beyond of bounds of possibility that the IRA could remain dormant for a very long period of time. We want to be absolutely certain that their criminal and paramilitary activity have ended and ended for good. On the border the British army dismantling goes on. Demilitarization happening in public. The IRA will decommission its weapons in private. Denis Murray, BBC

На секунду вернемся к другому террористическому бренду – Хамас.

One of the main concerns of many Israelis is that this is going to be one step nearer of legitimizing of Hamas. Having said that if you look at parallel, for example, in Northern Ireland it was only when the political wing of the IRA were legitimized (Sinn Fein) that they achieved a lasting peaceful settlement. Do you see any parallel there? And do you see a time when Hamas will be seen as a legitimate body by Israel? - You know, if Hamas changed, if Hamas moderated its positions, if Hamas met the three bench marks that were articulated by the United Nations, that is recognizing my country’s right to exist, abandoning terrorism and violence, supporting peace, then the door is open to negotiations.   

Представитель Израиля отреагировал на сравнение палестинской организации Хамас с IRA. Хамас признан террористической организацией всеми цивилизованными странами. Считаете ли вы оправданной эту аналогию? Вспомните, что в североирландском конфликте по разные стороны баррикад сражались те, кто верит в одного Бога, по крайней мере. Кроме того, это Европа…

В Европе были и другие террористические организации. Например, ETA – организация баскских сепаратистов. Они тоже сложили оружие.


The BBC has learned that the Basque separatist movement ETA is declaring a ceasefire.

И такие:

Удивительно, что об этой организации есть странная песня замечательного певца Дж.Кокера

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOBULsEUwn8

Терроризм романтичен иногда… Поэтому туда легко попадают молодые люди.

Мы начали этот модуль с песни. Ей и закончим. Именно события в Белфасте вдохновили когда-то легендарную группу Boney M на создание песни с этими словами:

Belfast, Belfast, When the country rings the leaving bell you're lost. Belfast, Belfast, when the hate you have for one another's past. You can try (You can try) You can try (You can try) You can try To tell the world the reason why. Belfast, Belfast, Belfast. It's the country that's changing' It's the country that's changing' It's the country that's changing'. All the people cause the people are leaving. It's the world that's deceiving. It's the world that's deceiving. It's the world that's deceiving.

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.