00-05 Politics,philosophy etc



Политика, философия,etc

Фильмы и книги о войне интересны, главным образом, не батальными сценами, а обострением отношений между людьми и странами. По той же причине тема пандемии может заставить нас задуматься о поведении индивидуумов, об отношениях между гражданами и государством, о международных отношениях. Это время ломки стереотипов и проверки на прочность традиционных теорий и взглядов. Слушаем АУДИО:

Humankind is now facing a global crisis. Perhaps the biggest crisis of our generation. The decisions people and governments take in the next few weeks will probably shape the world for years to come. They will shape not just our healthcare systems but also our economy, politics and culture. We must act quickly and decisively. We should also take into account the long-term consequences of our actions. When choosing between alternatives, we should ask ourselves not only how to overcome the immediate threat, but also what kind of world we will inhabit once the storm passes. Yes, the storm will pass, humankind will survive, most of us will still be alive — but we will inhabit a different world. Many short-term emergency measures will become a fixture of life. That is the nature of emergencies. They fast-forward historical processes. Decisions that in normal times could take years of deliberation are passed in a matter of hours. Immature and even dangerous technologies are pressed into service, because the risks of doing nothing are bigger. Entire countries serve as guinea-pigs in large-scale social experiments. What happens when everybody works from home and communicates only at a distance? What happens when entire schools and universities go online? In normal times, governments, businesses and educational boards would never agree to conduct such experiments. But these aren’t normal times.

Это был фрагмент статьи «Мир после коронавируса» авторства израильского историка по имени Yuval Noah Harari (FT).

Возможно, что мир сильно не изменится, но то, что в момент написания этих строк (май 2020) он иной, автору этих строк совершенно очевидно. Каждый модуль, который он пишет, может оказаться для него последним из-за принадлежности к «группе риска».

Тем, кто симпатизирует партиям, которые противостоят увеличению роли государства, сейчас очень неуютно, так как именно на государство рассчитывает большинство населения. Это касается, как вопросов борьбы с инфекцией, так и финансовой помощи гражданам и предпринимателям. Вернулся призрак великого популиста -  бывшего президента США:

This crisis has reminded us that government matters. It's reminded us that good government matters.

Роль правительства в жизни страны – это предмет споров республиканцев и демократов. Обязательно feel the difference, прочитав этот модуль:


У нас на платформе есть еще один (гораздо более фундаментальный) модуль о вмешательстве государства в экономику страны и плачевных результатах такой политики


Если читать времени нет, то все равно надо понять, откуда у австрийского экономиста и философа Ф.Хайека появились мысли о том, что любая централизация экономической жизни неизбежно ведет к порабощению граждан. Его труд «Дорога в рабство» (по-английски, правда, ‘The Road to Serfdom’) был любимой книгой Р.Рейгана и М.Тэтчер. 

When the Second World War began the British government took control of the economy to harness its power for the war effort. Hayek worried they would never let go. As men from the ministry dictated how many blankets each blanket factory produced, Hayek began writing a book attacking the government’s control of the economy. It would help change the course of the XX century and start a political battle that runs to this day.  - And that is a hand-written copy of my father-in-law … in an ordinary child's exercise book of ‘The Road to Serfdom’. - In ‘The Road to Serfdom’ Hayek makes a moral argument that government attempts to control the economy ultimately enslave its people.

8 Мая 2020 года мир праздновал VE DAY (Victory in Europe). Улицы были пусты из-за пандемии, но по телевизору ВВС постоянно показывало видео, посвященные победе над нацистами. Для россиян, привыкших за десятилетия оглядываться назад, оценивая героическое прошлое, такой аспект покажется неожиданным:

But the Britain that now emerged had been changed by the experience. The state had mobilized the entire population to the war effort. The government would now assume vast new powers in peacetime too. -  A spate of British railway building astonished the world. -  Much of the economy was taken into public ownership - the railways, the coal mines, iron and steel. – Now, don't forget, choose your doctor now. And new welfare state and the National Health Service would bring state provision into every home in the country. There will be no going back to the old normal of the 1930’s, for war had created a new public mood.        

Сплочение общества для решения глобальной задачи необходимо, но оно создало предпосылки для появления элементов социализма, которые потом пришлось уничтожать М.Тэтчер, чтобы построить передовую экономику. Но англичане фокусируются не только на войне, но и на мире:

VE Day still sits prominently in our collective memory and we go on remembering it and paying homage to that generation not just for the war they fought but for the peace they built when the fighting stopped.

А что было 9 мая 2020 года в Москве?

This is a very strange Victory Day in Moscow. I’ve been to many of these celebrations on Red Square in the past and normally there’s an incredible atmosphere: you see thousands of Russian troops marching across the square, hundreds of pieces of military equipment, military bands, there’s big crowds … quite an amazing atmosphere. Today it’s empty. And, of course, that is because of the coronavirus pandemic. Russia’s had to tone down the celebrations.  Having said that President Putin did lay red roses on the tomb of the Unknown Soldier, made his short speech, he’s addressed to the Russian people. It is such an important day for the country. Not only a celebration of glorious military victory 75 years ago, but this is the day the country remembers the human sacrifice that was made to defeat Nazi Germany. So Victory Day traditionally is the day when there are patriotic events taking place across the country. What often happens, what normally happens is huge crowds come onto the streets holding portraits of family members, grandparents, great grandparents who fought in the Second World War. Of course that cannot happen today on the streets because of the pandemic. So people have been uploading portraits of their family members for an online celebration.

Вопреки ожиданиям оппозиции российский президент не сделал того, на что решился А.Лукашенко:

What a contrast. I mean, Russia’s has toned down its Victory Day celebrations. We’ve seen Europe toning down its VE Day celebrations. Nothing like that in Belarus. President Lukashenko was determined that his Victory Day parade would go ahead as planned. He said he couldn’t cancel it because of ideological reasons. It was so important, he said, that it’d go ahead. But it was a pretty controversial decision considering the high rate of coronavirus infection at the moment in his country.

Обратите внимание на фразовый глагол to tone down = to make something less forceful or offensive

Параду Победы в Белоруссии предшествовала атмосфера of complacency:

A large crowd arrived at the local cemetery in Belarus. Some are wearing masks, others are not. Stalls are full of colorful bouquets. The flowers are placed on the graves of departed relatives. And Orthodox tradition marked by a state holiday. Families gather around Barbeque and enjoy a meal together. There’s no social distancing here. - The main thing is to have optimism, not to be afraid of anything. Security measures must be observed, but you need to believe in yourself. We will not get sick, especially with doctors like ours, with the President like ours. He will not let anyone die. - … Lukashenko has denied the severity of Covid-19. To a crowded ice-hockey game in Minsk earlier this month he told the crowd THERE ARE NO VIRUSES HERE. But it’s not true. According to World Health Organization there are more than 12 thousand cases of Covid-19 in the Eastern European country. 79 people have died. Critics of the autocratic rule in Belarus fear the statistics could be much worse and there’s little being done to stop the spread of disease. Professional football is in full swing.

Обратите внимание на идиому in full swing. Кстати, что такое ‘complacent’?

I don’t wanna see people get complacent.

Скрывать реальную картину бедствия – типичная черта авторитарных режимов, которые пытаются контролировать или делать вид, что они контролируют все в своей стране. С этого, собственно, и началась эпидемия в Китае:

In some cities, those suspected of being sick, are being rounded up … with multiple unverified videos, showing the quarantine squads at work. It's all adding to a growing sense of disbelief and dread.  - I don't want to be taken away like that, a child can be heard saying. But now, the fear is turning to anger. Doctor Li Wenliang was one of the first to report signs of the new strange virus. But his online posts were censored, and the police made him sign this confession along with 7 others, for spreading rumors. His death from the virus in this Wuhan hospital has prompted an outpouring on social media. The hashtag "I want freedom of speech" viewed almost 2 million times before being blocked. - Doctor Li was the first whistleblower, but no one cared, this man tells me.- Are you angry? - Yes, a bit, she says, but more hopeless. If they'd listened to him, the situation would be better now. On a Beijing riverbank, we find the tribute to the doctor – “Goodbye, Li Wenliang”, it says. There could be no doubting, just how sensitive a moment this now is for China’s ruling Communist Party. The already simmering concern about the mishandling of the crisis, explode into a public wave of anger and grief. In the death of the doctor, the systemic failings have been laid bare. The response though, is likely to be more censorship. These videos of Wuhan's hospitals, the conditions inside and the people queuing for masks were taken by a blogger - Chen Quishi. I spoke to him earlier this week. - What's your thoughts about how long you will be able to continue providing independent reporting from Wuhan? - I'm not sure, he says, the censorship is so strict - people's accounts are being closed down, if they share my content. His family say, he's now disappeared. In this public health disaster, there are real political risks and the orders are already being sent out, maintain stability, tighten control. John Sudworth, BBC News.

Несмотря на то, что именно жесткий контроль над обществом помог китайским властям справиться с эпидемией, доверия к официальной информации нет. Особенно, когда вмешивается иррациональное желание верить в заговоры:

In the original 1981 edition of "The Eyes of Darkness," this biological weapon was called "Gorki-400," in reference to a Russian locality. The name of the weapon was changed to "Wuhan-400" when the book was released again in 1989, according to the South China Morning Post.

Иногда фантазии и реальность смешиваются в одно целое. Если интересно, разберитесь в судьбе выдающегося американского химика Чарльза Либера. Обратите внимание на слово vial…

...economic espionage and research theft in the United States…for trying to smuggle vials of biological material out of the United States to China and lying about it to federal investigators.

Китайские власти установили почти тотальный контроль над обществом. Об этом будут показаны фрагменты чуть ниже. Однако есть народные традиции, с которыми очень трудно бороться. Возможно, из-за этих традиций и появилось семейство коронавирусов

let's find  more about the Corona virus the coronavirus is connected to wildlife and eating of wild game

Game – дичь. Удивились? Впереди много удивительного, если изучать английский по аутентичным материалам. Познакомьтесь теперь с понятием wet market:

China appears to be consciously opening back up, while more scrutiny is being placed on those wet markets, where the virus is believed to have originated. - I think it's important to differentiate between the wet markets that are so common, and so necessary for tens of millions of Chinese, who rely on them as the only affordable source of fresh produce, and meat, and seafood. And these wild life markets, which are currently illegal, and yet still are very difficult for the Chinese government to control, because of the fact that China does have an appetite for exotic meat.

Трудно контролировать, что люди едят. Но технические средства, однако, хороши для отслеживания их перемещения и обмена информацией.. Причем китайский опыт становится все интереснее руководству других стран. Особенно тех, в которых понятие свободы особой ценности не имеет. Можно, конечно, спорить по поводу Южной Кореи и Тайваня, но для того язык и создан – для выражения своих мыслей, для споров.

So, how can surveillance state tools help in the pandemic and what are potential pitfalls of privacy and freedom?   
This robot is disinfecting a subway train. So humans don’t have to. It’s just one of the high-tech tools that China’s using to fight the coronavirus along with drones and facial recognition cameras. But what about the tech we can see? China’s sophisticated controversial data surveillance system is used to track citizens on- and offline. It’s proving extremely effective during the pandemic. The mass surveillance network has taken the communist party decades to build. They face near constant criticism for it around the world. And as the world tries to get a grip on COVID-19 many countries are looking to the model for answers. Here's how they are doing it in South Korea. They are using you phone to locate where you are. And then they send you an emergency alert if you anywhere near where a confirmed coronavirus patient has been. Singapore, Israel, Iran, Taiwan and Russia have all adopted some or all of the China’s methods to temporarily harness the power of data. More expected to follow.
So how does China's data surveillance system work and how is it useful in a pandemic? It all starts with this - a national ID card. You need one to pretty much do anything in China from buying a mobile phone, using only app. Everything you do leaves a data trail linked back to your ID. In areas in lockdown, phone location data is being used to monitor movement and enforce curfews. If a patient is meant to be in quarantine, geolocation pings on their phone can alert authorities, if they stray out of their homes. Phone location data is also being used to map exactly where that person visited in the 2 weeks before being diagnosed.  A combination of human, an alternated computer analysis work out, who they may have infected. If they went on a train and got too close to other commuters, a text message’s sent out through one of the major apps alerting those at risk. Every person is being assigned a colored QR code, depending on a risk they pose: green - no risk, orange – they’ve entered a potential virus hotspot, and red - if they’ve tested positive for the virus and could still be contagious. None of this cyber surveillance would be any good without the Chinese state’s strict enforcement teams too. Police and volunteers have literally manned the exits of apartment blocks to keep places on lockdown.
But in countries, where these data surveillance powers are being brought in to help deal with coronavirus, some people are worried about the long term. – My name is Adam Schwartz, I am a senior lawyer at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. There is a great concern that when government gets new powers in a crisis, government never gives those powers away even when the crisis ends. So, for example, in the wake of the 9/11 attacks the United States created vast new surveillance powers and 19 years later, those powers are still very much in the hands of the US government.    
Striking the delicate balance between privacy and security is an age-old problem for governments and the public but perhaps never in history has the dilemma been more pressing and more life-threatening. 

If you strike a balance between two things, you accept parts of both things in order to satisfy some of the demands of both sides in an argumentrather than all the demands of just one side.

Именно об этом балансе должны задумываться молодые люди, выбирая свое будущее. Безразличие приведет к жизни, в которой слово «свобода», как в романе «1984» будет употребляться только в таких фразах, как «сапоги свободны», «животное свободно от блох»…

Будьте осторожны! Все начинается с дороги в ад, paved with good intentions:

The police checks will remain but people will be allowed to travel within their own region and to visit relatives with facemasks. A taste of freedom for a nation that’s endured such suffering. 

Для того, чтобы влиять на эмоции и поведение масс, привлекаются знаменитые артисты:

Автор этого модуля поместил цитату Геббельса не потому, что против ношения масок, которые частично ЗАЩИЩАЮТ окружающих людей от инфекций. Это всего лишь демонстрация свободы слова и права на мнение, без которого западное общество немыслимо.

На примере фрагмента из фильма Terminator вы еще раз убедились, что понимание реальной речи невозможно вне культурного аспекта. Еще пример такой же ситуации:

Well it’s known as the city that never sleeps but New York’s once bustling streets are now deserted. – I wanna wake up in a city that doesn’t sleep.

Видите связь этой фразы о Нью-Йорке с этой фотографией?

Не один раз СМИ использовали горькую иронию по поводу города, который никогда не спит, когда речь шла об изгнании бездомных, ночующих в поездах метро. В городе есть ночлежки, но оставаться в них страшно из-за риска заразиться коронавирусом.

But Josh Dean, executive director of the street homelessness organisation Human.nyc, said it will put many on the streets – potentially in an unfamiliar area. He also fears it will breach trust and damage existing relationships between homeless people and social workers. “This is going to be a tragedy,” he said. “Tonight at the same time 2,000 homeless folks or more are going to be thrown out of the train and into the streets … The impact of that is really going to be devastating.”In recent days he said he has already witnessed police ordering homeless people to get off trains at end of the line stations at night. He added: “They even forced a man with one shoe out into the rain one night. So it’s a pretty brutal and cruel operation.”

As the train arrives it’s obvious there are few passengers on board. These are the essential workers of New York. God bless them.  Keeping the city going while the rest of us stay safe at home.  And behind those masks worried faces. The train is the riskiest part of their day.

Интересен сам феномен разделения всех работающих на ‘essential’ и всех остальных. С точки зрения общественного блага, конечно, так как про личные интересы можно забыть. Никого не волнует, что ты, например, одолжил в феврале 2020 года денег, например, на открытие кафе у наркобарона. Места скопления людей, конечно, - рассадник вирусов, но должнику от этого не легче. Он должен понимать, что не относится к разряду ‘essential’… А вот ‘wrestlers’ (язык не поворачивается назвать эту клоунаду борьбой) получили этот «титул» в разгар эпидемии от властей Флориды. Подъем духа (spirit) c помощью алкоголя (тоже spirit) – вполне ‘essential’ бизнес:

At 67Wine And Spirits customers wait outside for their orders. Here they’ve hired some furloughed restaurant workers to keep up with demand.

(наняли временно отстраненных от работы служащих ресторана)

В Лондоне закрытие пабов прошло не без ноток трагизма:

3 hours ago Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the pubs must close. Coronavirus managing to shut the institutions that stayed open even during Nazi bombing campaigns. – It’s time, please for the British pubs. They defied the Nazi Blitz in WWII but they lost the coronavirus battle. 

За каждым закрытым бизнесом – человеческие трагедии, причем трагедия уволенного по масштабу меньше, чем трагедия владельца бизнеса. Во-первых, увольнять команду тяжело. Во-вторых, еще тяжелее становиться наемным работником. Впрочем, эту логику поймут лишь те, кто когда-то владел бизнесом и управлял людьми. Обсудите тему...

Знаете, кто такие nine-to-fivers? Ones who works at a job with regular daytime hours. Есть еще ‘salaryman culture’ – этот термин AI распознать не смог (как и stay in the office). Проанализируйте субтитры и убедитесь в этом:

Далее, горе бизнесмена не только в потере средств и в необходимости работать на другого человека. Трудно представить себя на месте руководителя фирмы, когда ему приходится выливать молоко или «запахивать» в землю урожай (ploughing under):

Не поверите, но коронавирус и равноправие полов – совместимые темы:

More men than women are getting infected and more men than women are dying. Early statistics show men are 50% more likely to die from the virus where these statistics have been gathered because this is a new virus. The data continues to stream in. But my next guests argue that what could be giving women the advantage here is their genetic make-up. Doctor Sharon Moalem. His book is called The Better Half, and he explores this topic precisely. Your whole book is called The Better Half and it is stark. You wrote the book but now it is playing  out, it's showing in whatever statistics we do have, in Italy, for instance, 70% of those who have being infected and have died are men according to their national health statistics. Tell us why. - Well, this goes back to what I predicted in the book. And that’s females genetically have the survival advantage over males. And that’s because they have the double X-factor. – Ah…explain that. – And so… Ah… It’s because they have the double X-factor, they have two X chromosomes, males only have one. And so many of the genes are involved in survival that the immune system uses only X chromosome. And this also means that females have two populations of cells across their body that they use to fight infections. Men have only one. And this gives them a leg up in survival all the way through the life course.

Обратите внимание на идиому ‘to give leg up’ в последнем предложении.

Мужчины в опасности! Но нет! Оказывается, маски созданы для мужского типа лица:

The masks do not fit their faces because they’re just too big. They’re designed for bigger heads than the average female face.

Это слова автора книги Invisible Women, в которой описаны похожие проблемы – crash-tests для новых моделей авто делают с манекенами-мужчинами и даже мощность кондиционеров рассчитывают так, чтобы мужчинам было комфортно, а женщины мерзли…

Все остальные видео вы просмотрите почти без комментариев. Иначе наш модуль «распухнет» до ужасающего размера. Тема: религия и вирусы

СNN может любой сюжет превратить в рекламу лидеров демократической партии США:

Нужно обязательно понимать, что такое праздник Mardi Gras, если вы изучаете американскую культуру:

Обратите внимание на идиому со шляпой в предыдущем видео.

Чрезвычайно важное понятие - triage:

And the first step in triage is to take the pulse, check the respiration. That was never done.

Triage – это сортировка больных согласно приоритетам. Но в эпоху дефицита внимания медперсонала и наличия оборудования (вентиляторов) им приходится играть роль Бога:

Трамп позволял себе необдуманные фразы по поводу лечения коронавируса. Сразу же попадал под огонь оппонентов (демократов):

I mean things are starting to come unglued and the President seems unhinged

Чтобы завершить модуль, вернемся к теме роли государства в кризисных ситуациях. Какие инструменты решила использовать американская администрация для решения задач, стоящих перед страной? Как, например, заставить компании, производящие элементы питания, делать аппараты ИВЛ? Конечно же, нужно использовать то, что было опробовано во время войны!

А вы бы назвали вирус «китайским»?

Итак, Президент США решил использовать DPA:

Если вы смогли дочитать до этого момента, то это героизм. Чаще всего вы, конечно, героиня, которая не вписывается в песню группы ABBA Our Last Summer:


Если вам интересна персона Ф.Хайека и его теория, то зайдите и сюда.


Там же можно познакомиться с автором этих строк и вообще идеи платформы, на которой вы находитесь.

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.