00-59.1 Apes and Apps

The Planet of the Apes. Instagram. Tinder.

by

Apes and humans

Поговорим о наших ближайших родственниках – об обезьянах. Мы от них отличаемся, конечно. Но сходство в физиологии и поведении очевидное. Ведь мы вместе с ними являемся ПРИМАТАМИ.

Why Are Humans Primates?

People may seem very different from lemurs, monkeys and apes, but all primates share a few key physical and behavioral characteristics. I’m a primate. You’re a primate. Everyone reading this blog is a primate. That’s not news. We hear it all he time: Humans are primates. But what does that really mean? What do we have in common with a baboon? Or even our closest living relative, the chimpanzee?

Это слово произносят так:

Так что же у нас общего с этими приматами? Ответ: humans share more DNA with lemurs, monkeys and apes than they do with other mammals.

В английском языке нужно отличать понятия APE и MONKEY

Обратите внимание на слово ‘lifespan’ – продолжительность жизни. ‘Span’ – это «протяженность, размах». Говорят о «размахе крыльев» у орлов и самолетов. Легкий самолет, работающий на солнечной энергии, имеет огромный размах крыльев (ведь они же и являются solar panels):

…but its wingspan is equivalent to a Boeing 747

В видео было еще одно интересное слово – locomotion (передвижение). Tastes differ. Поэтому locomotion of the human species нам кажется грациозным:

The Loco-motion. The Loco-motion. Everybody's doing a brand-new dance, now. Come on baby, do the Loco-motion

В видео были также упомянуты ‘webbed feet’. Web – это «паутина», т.е. что-то переплетенное, связанное. Если между пальцами есть кожа, то говорят о ‘webbed feet’.

В фильме ‘The Planet of Apes’ персонаж очень разозлился на гостя с Земли за использование слова ‘monkey’ вместо гордого термина ‘ape’ (ниже ‘monkeys’ были только ‘humans’):

- No way to explain what can't exist. - Talking monkeys can't exist. – Apes! Monkeys are further down the evolutionary ladder. Just above humans.

Согласно сценарию этого фильма (2001), когда-то достигшее высот развития человечество выродилось, и править миром стали обезьяны. А вдруг все началось так:

Well, apparently, Instagram is so easy, even a chimp can do it. Meet the primate who’s mastered the photo sharing app and the real Tarzan who taught him. Who else has that story but Jeanne Moos. - It's the next best thing to a banana. Instagram on an Iphone. This chimp's gone viral for doing what we all do - swipe and scroll. And just like us, what's his favorite thing to look at? Oh, that's you. Himself! The video was shot by Mike Holston who calls himself the real Tarzan. A guy who seems tickled to interact with any animal. I know your tickle spot. Sharing the joy of snakes with the kids of Sean Diddy Combs. -  You know, black people, we've never had a Tarzan. You haven't had a Tarzan? Yeah. We have one now. - But a chimp named Sugriva is the star of this video with his oh, so savvy touchscreen technique. I work in a wireless store, and I have customers who can't do this, read one comment. The fact that he knows to swipe backwards to return to the album is what blows my mind. He didn't seem to have much tolerance for snakes. Mike says he even knows how to Facetime. You're calling Uncle Chuck! (обычно так зовут придурковатого смотрителя зоопарка). In a span of a week, we've had two gorillas pose in an African park ranger's selfie, and now a chimp, not just monkeying around with the phone, but truly working it. As someone tweeted, along with a GIF from "Planet of the Apes", IT HAS BEGUN Oh, it's begun all right. Planet of the apps. But instead of making war, make love. Today Instagram, tomorrow he'll be on Tinder (приложение для знакомств).

Вы не могли не заметить слово ‘span’ в этом сюжете, когда говорилось о ‘span of the week’… Чаще смотрите новости – выучите и закрепите новые слова!

Не все любят фантастику. Поэтому к фильму The Planet of the Apes мы вернемся позднее.

Использование соцсетей – не главный порок, которому удалось научить наших младших братьев. 

That feel when you’ve got all this meat and she says she’s a vegetarian.

Back in 2009, Christina Gomes and Christophe Boesch of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology published a paper in support of the “meat-for-sex” behavior hypotheses in early human society. In a nutshell, the theory holds that the ladies would have been all over the best hunters among our ancestors because they had meat to share. This would benefit the males by providing more mating opportunities while allowing the females a method to widen their diet and intake more calories and nutrients via meat without having to hunt — which is both dangerous and energy intensive.

Обратите внимание на идиому ‘in a nutshell’ (кратко).

В чем суть эксперимента? О том, что слабый пол всегда тяготел к охотникам! Чтобы не охотиться, но питаться лучше. Знаете идиому ‘tit for tat’? Это ответное действие, отплата; зуб за зуб. Не думайте, что идиома произошла от ‘this for that’ . В ее основе – невинные ответные удары, описанные в старинной поэме. Одна из статей о привлечении прекрасного пола мясом называлась ‘Tit for meat’… Но это еще не было проституцией! Ведь обезьяны не понимали, что такое деньги.

Monkeys can be taught the concept of money. And surely after they understand it they’ll use it to buy sex. An economist and psychologist from Yale conducted an experiment back in 2005 just to see if monkeys could understand currency. They spent many months teaching seven Capuchin1 monkeys the concept of money. The scientists gave the monkeys an allowance of circular disks, which represented their currency. They also set up a store where monkeys could buy their favorite treats. Among them were apples, grapes and Jell-O. After month of training the monkeys learned to purchase food with their disks. The most unexpected breakthrough for this experiment came when scientists found a male capuchin monkey having sex with a female. After they were done, the male monkey gave the female monkey some disks and she immediately traded them in for grapes. The amazing part is how deeply the monkeys understood their currency. They didn't just traded in for goods in this case they traded it in for services.

Девушка явно путает кофе (cappuccino) с обезьяной (Capuchin). Второе из этих слов имеет ударение на первый гласный звук. Удивительно, но происхождение у этих слов общее: монахи-капуцины носили большие остроконечные капюшоны. Обезьяна получила название благодаря шерсти, похожей на капюшон монахов. Способ приготовления кофе ассоциируют с монахами-капуцинами исключительно из-за цвета их одежды:

'Cappuccino' takes its name from the Capuchin friars: the color of the espresso mixed with frothed milk was similar to the color of the Capuchin robe. Friar = brother

Читайте фрагмент статьи:

How scientists taught monkeys the concept of money. Not long after, the first prostitute monkey appeared. When Chen and Santos first started their study, they didn’t have a particular goal in mind. It was just as simple as giving a monkey a dollar and see what would happen, which was exactly the case. Instead of the dollar, however, a silver disc with a hole in its center was employed as a means of currency for the capuchins. It took several months of repetition for the capuchins to learn that they could exchange such a token for fruit. After they understood this, each monkey was given 12 tokens to decide on how to spend it in her best interest on food valued at different prices. Something else happened then too — what’s maybe the most evident form of one’s grasp upon currency. The idea is that you can use money as a form of currency to exchange for goods or services, as in not just food: one of the researchers observed how one of the monkeys exchanged money to another for sex. After the act was over, the monkey which was paid immediately used it to buy a grape…

Не менее интересна система приоритетов самок пингвинов, для которых строительный материал для гнезда важнее, чем пища. Но мы вернемся к нашим обезьянам. Вернее, к фрагментам из упомянутого выше фильма. 

You lose. Again. That's enough. Stop. Pay attention! Pericles, stop! I mean it. Or no treat! - I'm teaching him. - No, you're teasing him. Well, he's gene-spliced, chromosome enhanced. State-of- the- art monkey. He can handle it. - You know what, when you frustrate them, they lose focus. They get confused, even violent. - Hey, congratulations Pericles, you're gonna be a daddy. - Thought I saw a smirk on his face. - Actually, the female was the aggressive one.  

Глагол ‘to splice’ означает просто «соединить, склеить». В генной инженерии имеет тот же смысл, когда идет внедрение какого-нибудь объекта в ДНК ( DNA). Гораздо важнее знать идиому state-of-the-art (что-то самое новое, передовое) – это может быть оборудованный по последнему слову техники коммерческий центр или вооружение:

...a state-of-the-art commercial center. Today soldiers go into battle with state-of-the-art equipment costing billions of dollars.

Возвращаемся на Планету Обезьян:

Excuse me sir, I hope you don't mind my saying but this is a waste of time. Look, we have standard operating procedures... - I'm well aware of the procedures, sir but if we go through all of them it will be gone...-  No manned flights. We start sending out an ape. Then if it's safe, we talk about a pilot. In that order. - You need somebody out there who can think, why don't you just allow me to do my job? He's the canary, that's the coal mine. Your monkey launches at 16:00. - You just follow your sequence and come home. Understand? Home.

Причем тут канарейки и угольные шахты? Просто главному герою жалко отправлять своего питомца на смерть в то время, как его начальник считает, что это так называемый ‘canary test’.  Википедия: Выражение перекочевало в обиход из шахтерского лексикона. В прежние времена, клетки с канарейками заносили в шахты для того, чтобы проверить их на наличие опасных для жизни газов. Канарейки очень чувствительны к мельчайшим примесям газа в воздухе, поэтому если птица умирала или начинала вести себя неестественно, то шахтеры немедленно покидали опасное место. В дальнейшем, выражение стало служить для обозначения феномена, свидетельствующего о том, что в обществе существуют проблемы со свободным выражением мнения, или же со свободным выбором собственной линии поведения. «Канарейками в шахте» стали называть людей или организации, открыто выступающих против некой системы — зачастую в весьма нетривиальных формах, хотя возможен и вариант без подобной составляющей. Если они подвергаются за это политическим репрессиям, то это значит, что в обществе существует склонность к ограничению свобод. 

Есть и более простое применение этого выражения. «Канарейка» - это тающие льды Гренландии. Всемирные катастрофы не за горами.

Someone said if Greenland is the canary in the coal mine, the canary is dead. - The canary is dead in that it indicates it's time to get out of the mine.

Главный герой все-таки нарушил приказ и бросился спасать шимпанзе, что привело его к крушению на загадочной планете и пленению разумными жестокими обезьянами:

Next you'll be telling us these beasts have a soul. Of course they do. The senator's daughter flirts with blasphemy. Is there a soul in there? Do you have a towel? I've lost my appetite.

В следующих видео обратите внимание на пару слов

Ingenuity – изобретательность, мастерство;    devious в данном случае хитрость (в других случаях это просто «непрямой», «извилистый»). Полезно запомнить фразу

Their ingenuity goes hand in hand with their cruelty.

 I don't have much time. Tell me about this human... who troubles you.- I will capture him with little trouble. -No. You're not telling me everything. You believe he is not born of this world. Has he come alone?- Yes. - More will come looking for him.- How can you possibly know?- I have something to tell you. Something my father told me...and his father told him. Back along our bloodlines to Semos. In the time before time... we were the slaves and the humans...were the masters. Impossible. Break it. What you hold in your hand is the proof of their power. Their power of invention. Their power of technology. Against this, our strength means nothing. This has the power of a thousand spears. I warn you. Their ingenuity goes hand in hand with their cruelty. No creature...is as devious, as violent. You must find this human quickly.
- So many questions I want to ask. - Me too. - These "zoos"… You've speak of. What are they? This word is not familiar. -Zoos where you find our last few apes. - What happened to them? -Gone. After we cut down the forests the ones who survived were locked up in cages for amusement. Used for scientific experiment. - That's horrible. - We do worse to our own kind. I don't understand. You seem to possess such intelligence. - Yeah, we're pretty smart. Smarter we get, the more dangerous our world becomes. - I knew it. You're sensitive. Uncommon quality in a male.  Why don't your apes object to the way you treat them? - Our apes can't talk. - Maybe they choose not to, given the way you treat them. - Apes in cages. Right.
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