00-38. Владение оружием в США и Великобритании


Итак, изучаем владение и применение оружия в «странах изучаемого языка». Начнем с США, так как в этой стране эта тема, к сожалению, актуальна круглый год.

Вас не должна сейчас смущать эта картинка, если вы знакомы с движением ‘metoo’ (о феминизме – в другом модуле).

Девушка не хочет стать очередной жертвой какого-нибудь обезумевшего стрелка. Вспомним 2-ю поправку  к Конституции США:

“A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.”

Помня про ‘bare arms’, вы легко поймете юмор:

Есть еще такая шутка: ‘Actually, the 2nd Amendment is misunderstood by nearly all, mainly due to the clerk who mis-transcribed the law, which was originally meant to allow Americans to wear sleeveless shirts and dresses. Yes, it was the first time in history people were allowed to bare arms.

Если вы - непримиримый противник владения гражданами огнестрельного оружия, то вам просто необходимо понять аргументы оппонентов для того, чтобы быть в курсе дискуссии в американском обществе. Юмор этой картинки весьма мрачен:

Там, где нет возможности дать отпор преступнику, вероятность погибнуть гораздо выше.

Those children were blown away in a gun free zone, so I think it's kind of silly to blame guns. The fact is, when a nutcase sees a sign that says "gun free zone", he knows he's got a free shot to kill people, so I'm not a big fan of "gun free zones" either by the way. Guns, in the right hands protect people. Guns in a wrong hands, should be taken away. We don't want guns in the hands of the mentally ill people. But the NRA protects my rights as a law abiding citizen that have a gun, nothing wrong with that.

В этом видео было упомянуто mental health – ключевое понятие в дебатах по поводу владения оружием:

Mental health is a part of this issue. We cannot ignore the fact that mental health is part of this, because frankly, if we were to get rid of guns today, not possible but if we were. There are still explosives, you are not going to stop violence by regulating the means of violence. You may be able to slow down the amount of violence they do. That goes to the second point. We have to do something about military style weapon, that are.

Эта шутка вам теперь понятна. Вы сможете поддержать беседу в США. Но сначала убедитесь в том, что ваш собеседник не симпатизирует демократической партии. Еще хуже, если они работают на телеканал, собственник которого симпатизирует демократам:

MORGAN: . . . How do you justify the claim more guns makes more safe people in America? I don't -- don't get it. - LOTT: Every place that guns have been banned, murder rates have gone up. You cannot point to one place, whether it's Chicago or whether it's D.C. or whether it's been England of whether it's been Jamaica or Ireland. - MORGAN: I'm sorry, but that's just a complete lie. It's a complete lie. The gun murder rate in Britain is 35 a year, average. You need to stop repeating a blatant lie, about what happens in other countries.  [cross talk]  No, you're not going to get away with this. You lied about it the other day. Thirty-five gun murders a year in Britain, eleven to twelve thousand in America. – LOTT:You don’t even understand simple math! - Amanpur: After Dunblane, they put in these bans, they put in these punishments, fines, jail sentences, etc. and it’s true that straight afterwards there wasn't a huge change, but 2002/2003 until 2011 the rate plummeted by 44%.

Dunblane – шотландский городок, в котором в 1996 году маньяк застрелил 16 школьников и их учителя. После этого владение оружием в Великобритании было практически запрещено. Однако, посмотрите на эти данные

Рассмотрим разные точки зрения на ситуацию в Великобритании (все фразы из одного сюжета):

Shooting is a sport in which millimeters matter and where some of Britain`s best have to travel nearly six thousand miles to make that difference.
If Julia Lydall fired this 22 pistol back home in Surrey she`d been breaking the law and she`d face five years in prison under the fire arms amendment act of 1997.
So instead she has to train with others members of an elite squad in South Africa. I'd love love love to have just a license so I could shoot at home, to be able to have my  gun at home.

Спорт или просто любовь к коллекционированию оружия вряд ли вызовут серьезную симпатию. Горе матери, потерявшей сына, более убедительно, конечно:

Leon Forbes was gunned down on his doorstep and his mother wants the laws tightened, not relaxed. Lives are much more important than metals.

Вернемся в США и послушаем мать, потерявшую дочь в результате стрельбы в школе (2018 год):

Mr. Trump woke up today to this headline in the conservative New York Post: a plea from gun control to help stop the slaughter. “Mr. President please act”. A mother who lost her daughter in a shooting is also appealing to the president. -You need to help us! Now! We need security now! For all these children that have to go to school. We need action! Action! Action!

Статистика убийств с помощью огнестрельного оружия:

Mass shootings in the US have become all too common. The brutal attack in Vegas was the two hundred and seventy third mass shooting out of two hundred and seventy five days so far this year, according to the gun violence archive. An independent group which defines such incidents as four or more people shot or killed, not including the shooter. There’s no one definition of mass shootings in the US, and estimates vary wildly. But that group reports that more than eleven thousand people in the US have died from gun violence so far this year. Yet the US is actually considering measures that would ease gun restrictions. The gun lobby the National Rifle Association is considered so powerful; many politicians are reluctant to challenge them.

Вероятность погибнуть в США от выстрела чуть меньше, чем вероятность смерти от ДТП, но она все равно велика по сравнению Японией или Великобританией:

The controls work: in Japan and the UK you’re more likely to be killed being struck by lightning than by a gun. Thank you for watching. 

Вам может показаться, что мужчина, который произнес эти слова, категорически против 2-й поправки к Конституции США. Послушаете его слова в этой дискуссии:

This is what the second amendment says: "A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a Free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." That's written in the constitution, why not change the constitution? - I don't have any intrinsic objections to people owning guns at all. If I lived in a certain part of the United States, I would also own a gun. I would probably have a gun in my gloves compartment if I was driving through a certain areas of certain American cities. - For self-defense? - Absolutely. - Presumably? - Presumably, yes. Thank you very much. And that is how most Americans would think, as well. Let's try and understand that, before we try to impose our entire set of European values on that country. - It's not the Wild West, in America.- It is in certain parts, I'm sorry. - No, but having guns makes it the Wild West. - There are many legitimate uses for guns. -Yeah.- You can't completely eradicate them from society.- Do you want to turn kindergarten schools into basically a war zones? Do you want your little, tiny toddlers going in with like people with heavy like guns around them? I think not. That optic shames America. And that optic kind of ashames the world. I think America loses all moral authority to preach and judge about other countries. We’ve heard Donald Trump say appalling language about countries in Africa. He should be absolutely ashamed about that optic.

Женщина в этой дискуссии напомнила о том, что нет ничего хорошего в том, чтобы учителям и воспитателям разрешить носить оружие. Именно это предложил Трамп, считая, что охранники «не любят детей и не знают их»:

We begin with US president Donald Trump doubling down on his call to put guns in the hands of teachers, saying an armed teacher would have (quote)"shot the hell out of the Florida shooter’’. - President Trump pledging tonight to pressure Congress to act on guns. Saying it's high time to stop the cycle of massacres in American schools. - The problem that's been happening over the last twenty years is people have talked. You said it. It's all talk, it's not action. And we are gonna take action. - The President said, protecting the nation’s children, can be left to security guards or school police officers alone. - A security guard doesn't know the children, doesn't love the children. This man, standing outside of the school the other day, doesn't love the children, probably, doesn't know the children. - Instead he's calling for well trained teachers to carry concealed weapons. - I don't want a person that's never handled a gun, that wouldn't know what a gun looks like, to be armed. But, out of your teaching population, out of your teaching population, you have ten percent, twenty percent, of very gun adept people.

Обратите внимание на две идиомы – ‘to double down’ и ‘high time’.

Все ли родители против того, чтобы дети находились рядом c вооруженными учителями? Ответ в этой переписке:

Есть еще один интересный аспект массового доступа населения к оружию – это вероятность застрелиться. Причем в группе риска – белые мужчины (черные мужчины в группе риска быть застреленными полицейскими).

I think, one politically powerful argument on the side of the gun owners, on behalf of gun owners, is that twice as many killings by guns in the US are suicides. Those guns are a danger, especially to white men. – Yes - They are most likely to shoot themselves. Women don't usually kill themselves with guns.

Те, кто считает, что американцы должны быть вооружены, настаивают на ограничении продажи полуавтоматического оружия, которое легко превратить в автоматическое.

A fully automatic rifle requires two components - a trigger mechanism that allows multiple rounds fired with one finger squeeze, and a magazine, able to feed the weapon with the continuous stream of bullets. The result is the kind of weapon, one could logically only used in a war, or, like Las Vegas, in a massacre. - Be advised, it is automatic fire. Fully automatic fire from an elevated position. -  You'd think that kind of weapon power would be illegal for average gun owners to possess, think again. This is a slide stock. Perfectly legal, aftermarket component. According to the manufacturer’s video, it's easy to assemble on an assault rifle. And the results, though technically do not make a machine gun. Ask yourself, if you can tell the difference. - That was just one of several ways that you can make a semi-automatic rifle, into essentially a fully automatic rifle. - Kits, you can buy online to turn a semi-automatic rifle into a fully automatic weapon. Legal to buy, yet illegal to actually use.

Другие настаивают на более тщательной проверке тех, кому продают оружие (background check):

He also served jail time for domestic violence, but he is still passed background checks and was able to legally purchase guns because the US Air Force failed to report his conviction.

А как вы отнесетесь к этой логике:

One of most powerful arguments on an NRA is saying, well, it's people that kill people, not guns that kill people. Because, obviously, you have to pull a trigger. That's quite a difficult one to argue with.

В ней упомянута влиятельная организация – NRA, которая защищает интересы тех, кто продает оружие. 

The nation's biggest gun lobby, the NRA says that President is doing what he is always does, when he doesn't get his way. Defying the will of the people, and using executive action (речь об Обаме)

Аргумент NRA очень прост – убивают люди, а не предметы.

Казалось бы, все просто: производители оружия наживаются, люди гибнут. Здравомыслящие американцы должны были бы мгновенно принять решение о запрете продажи оружия гражданам. Но на то они и американцы – они хотят оставаться гражданами, а не рабами при любых обстоятельствах, включая превращение федерального центра в тиранию. Вторая поправка к Конституции США дает гражданам право на вооруженное свержение тирании. Те, кто проголосовал за Трампа, голосовал за то, что 2-я поправка к Конституции США будет неприкосновенна.

Как звучит фраза «перековать мечи на орала»?

They shall beat their swords into plowshares. - Yes, it means, to turn weapons to peaceful uses.

Так вот, согласно Томасу Джефферсону, те, кто перековал мечи на орала, будут пахать на тех, кто этого не сделал. Более общая мысль звучит так:

Посмотрите еще более убедительную логику автора книги о том, как пережить Obama-geddon (среди прочих страхов упоминалась перспектива отмены 2-й поправки):

You’re joining NRA after Sandy Hook. Why would anybody do that? - Well, I just wanted to protect my rights, my second Amendment rights. I’m not a big gun guy, by the way. I'm not one of the world's biggest gun guys. I go to a gun range once a year to practice a little bit, I keep a gun at my home for self-defense. But I always want the right to have it, to defend myself, and to defend my family. So I joined the NRA, I happened to be Jewish by birth, by the way, and I’ve  always said in many interviews around the country, that the slaughter of Jews began in Nazi Germany, in nineteen thirty eight  after Hitler passed the law that said that Jews  could not own guns

Итак, Холокост начался с того, что Гитлер запретил евреям иметь оружие…

Деспотические режимы всегда запрещали гражданам иметь оружие. Это очевидно. Но иногда их лидеры могут высказать против США убийственную критику:

It says, the US should  not impudently style itself as a human rights judge, but mind its own poor human rights records in its land where racial discrimination, gun related crimes, and all others social crimes prevail. And I have to say, that is an argument, that I have heard a number of times during my visits here, to North Korea. There is a lot of criticism of the United States, and each mass shooting incident for example gives North Korean officials ammunition to say: How could that society, how could America judge North Korea, where, if you walk through the streets as a citizen you are relatively safe from things like gun violence obviously. People don't own weapons here, only a small handful of people are authorized to carry firearms.

Вам нужно обязательно продумать эту тему и выработать свою точку зрения. Аргументов вы увидели множество с обеих сторон. Теперь вы сможете не только поддержать беседу на тему владения оружием, но и понимать мировые новости, где она обсуждается. Теперь вы оцените критику канала FOX NEWS (рупор республиканцев): 

Поймете и того, кто посмотрел сюжет с Пирсом Морганом о статистике убитых огнестрельным оружием в США и Великобритании (см. выше) и написал комментарий: Piers Morgan is a liberal totalitarian who has no problem with armed security protecting his ass.....but protecting average Americans is "hogwash". Последнее слово – это «чушь, глупость». А вот с «ругательством» LIBERAL нам придется немного разобраться в одном из следующих модулей. 

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.