00-65. Леннон, Азия, свобода

Lennon, Imagine, China

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Леннон, Азия, свобода

Мы уже договорились, что нельзя выучить язык, не пытаясь разобраться в традициях народа, который на нем говорит. Не понимая песен, которые известны поколениям. На главной площади Нью-Йoрка – Time Square – встречать Новый Год собирается почти миллион американцев. За пять минут до конца года они традиционно слушают песню Дж. Леннона “Imagine”, чуть позднее - другие ‘standards’, на которых мы останавливаться не будем. Погрузитесь в атмосферу Time Square:

Раньше песня обычно исполнялась в оригинале, позднее ее стали петь различные исполнители. Например, в 2014 году ее исполнила женщина:

Выбор исполнителей не всегда был удачным: в последние минуты 2012 года некто Cee Lo Green исполнил “Imagine”, заменив строки “Nothing to kill or die for and no religion too”  на “Nothing to kill or die for and all religion’s true”, разозлив этим атеистов и фанатов Леннона:

Имел место еще один конфликт – с Леди Гага по поводу ее исполнения той же песни на пианино, принадлежащем Леннону:

Изучите его сами, если вам интересно. Мы же обсудим тему религии в песне “Imagine”. Как вы отнесетесь к следующим словам, оправдывающим чернокожего певца, размещенным на одном из форумов:

“OK come on...people are taking this way too literally. I'm not religious, and I agree with Lennon's version, but I understand why Сee-lo did this—it appeals to the majority of Americans who are religious, and it doesn't actually change the meaning that much. Sure, Lennon was an atheist, but this song is really about world peace, and saying that all religions are true just means we should all respect each other's beliefs. It has nothing to do with fundamentalism!”?

Вот, что писал сам Леннон на эту тему:

«... the World Church called me once and asked, "Can we use the lyrics to 'Imagine' and just change it to 'Imagine one religion'?" That showed [me] they didn't understand it at all. It would defeat the whole purpose of the song, the whole idea».

У этой песни есть еще один интересный аспект: сам автор назвал ее “communist manifesto”, мечтая о мире, в котором нет собственности (imagine no possessions). В этом смысле миллион американцев и гостей Нью-Йорка – цитадели капитализма, танцующих и целующихся под «коммунистический манифест», выглядит забавно. Автор песни верил в идеалы коммунизма, отвергая опыт СССР и Китая, мечтал о справедливом социализме в Англии. Реальный же коммунизм был построен Пол Потом в 70-х годах 20 века в Кампучии: “no possessions”, отменены деньги, запрещена западная медицина (только своя-народная была разрешена), в лагерях уничтожена почти половина населения страны. Знание европейских языков было равнозначно смертному приговору. Введен год номер ноль. На эту тему был снят замечательный фильм “The Killing Fields”, но его авторы, видимо, совершили ошибку, завершив фильм так:

Получается, что и Леннон, и Пол Пот мечтали об одинаковом устройстве мира…

Есть статистические данные, что “Imagine” – одна из самых часто исполняемых в мире. Произведения такого рода называются “standards”, т.е. согласно Википедии,  “the most popular and enduring songs from a particular genre or style”. Знакомство с такими произведениями необходимо хотя бы для понимания пародий:

Текст этой пародии полезен для изучения кулинарных терминов: Imagine there’s no pizza, I couldn’t if I tried, Eating only tacos, Or Kentucky Fried, Imagine only burgers, It’s frightening and sad, You’re lucky you have pizza…”.

Если вы наберетесь терпения, то найдете в песне “frosting, cookies, junk food, dough, mozzarella, anchovies, pepperoni”.

Раз уже мы коснулись темы Нового Года, то нельзя не сделать для вас маленькое открытие: среди прочих (см. словарь) слово ‘resolution’ имеет значение: something decided on, firmness of purpose, determination. По-русски это звучало бы «новогоднее пожелание», но в слове ‘resolution’ больше упор на намерение реализовать свои желания:

What is your resolution? – Actually, my resolution right now is to go to Dominican Republic with my wife and to enjoy our vacation. – Yeah- That’s our resolution! – That’s a great resolution! Enjoy it! A little nicer than today. This is my favorite resolution. – To gain weight and start smoking! SCREEN China’s New Year resolution may have been to reduce its huge carbon footprint as well as investing 56 billion dollars to clear up its skies. – Perhaps a New Year’s resolution of sort coming from North Korea with the call for easing tensions with the South.

Гораздо более серьезные ассоциации возникают там, где есть политика, т.е. жизнь. Наследие Леннона - хорошая основа для протестов:

Mass rallies in Tel-Aviv in 2011. Israeli citizens vocalize their discomfort with Israel’s high cost of living and lack of affordable housing.

На плакате одного из протестующих вы видели надпись ‘A working class hero is something to be’. Это название песни Леннона. Если противно слушать «старье», то послушайте «кавер» в исполнении молодой красивой девушки. Правда, девушка, матерится так же, как и автор песни, поэтому сначала прочтите предупреждение:

In 1973, US Representative Harley Orrin Staggers heard the song — which includes the lines "'Till you're so fucking crazy you can't follow their rules" and "But you're still fucking peasants as far as I can see" — on WGTB and lodged a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The manager of the station, Ken Sleeman, faced a year in prison and a $10,000 fine, but defended his decision to play the song saying, "The People of Washington, DC are sophisticated enough to accept the occasional four-letter word in context, and not become sexually aroused, offended, or upset." The charges were dropped. Other US radio stations, like Boston's WBCN, banned the song for its use of the word "fucking". In Australia, the album was released with the expletive removed from the song and the lyrics censored on the inner sleeve.

ex·ple·tive (kspl-tv) =an exclamation especially one that is profane, vulgar, or obscene.. A word or phrase that does not contribute any meaning but is added only to fill out a sentence.

Эту фразу больше знать не нужно – inner sleeve (вкладыш к виниловому диску). Кстати, вкладыши могут много рассказать об эпохе. Советская пластинка Дина Мартина содержала песню Hey, Brother, Pour The Wine, но перевод был – «Эй, Брат!» Цензоры не пропустили потому, что в СССР тогда шла безумная антиалкогольная кампания. 

Слушайте оригинал и «кавер»:

Знают Леннона и в Китае. Попробуйте сами догадаться, почему в Гонконге он известен больше… Посмотрите сюжет CNN о протесте молодежи против политики Пекина в Гонконге (2014 год) и убедитесь в том, что без песни “Imagine” этот сюжет выглядел бы бледнее.

Francis Lee worries the protests could spread chaos. – What I do not want to see is the resort to force and to violence. – His son believes his father’s generation is too traumatized by the bloody events of a quarter of century ago. We saw what happened in Tiananmen Square. Then you think it’s quite… it’s nearly impossible to get any response or positive response … from China government. They might think that we’re more naïve, they might say we’re just dreaming but we do think it is worth fighting for. – There certainly are plenty of dreamers here. Like it or not, their youthful idealism has triggered the greatest political upheaval this city has seen in a generation.

Будете ли вы в Китае или нет – про события на Tiananmen Square знать нужно, если вы собираетесь смотреть мировые новости. Официальная пропаганда в Китае блокирует всякую информацию об этих событиях прошлого века. Те, кто ищет эту информацию, рискует быть замеченными властями:

Впрочем, китайская молодежь знает об этих событиях все меньше и меньше:

Security was tight on this the 16th anniversary of the suppression of the pro-democracy protest in Tiananmen Square. As usual an honored guard raised the Chinese flag - a ceremony repeated daily here. But around the square uniformed and plainclothes police kept watch for any sign of protest and possible dissenters where kept on the guard in their homes. Hundreds were killed when troops and tanks rolled into Beijing and ceased control of the square. And for the Chinese Communist party that night is still an extremely sensitive issue. Especially this year with the death in January of the former leader Zhao Ziyang who was ousted for sympathizing with the protestors. Tiananmen is still very much alive issue for those who ordinary Chinese who witnessed or took part in the events then. Yet for the younger generation who are in their twenties what happened in 1989 has much less significance. They were children at that time and have grown up and age of rampant commercialism and economic growth.  For them the events that took place on this square belong to another era all together and that is exactly what the Chinese communist party wants: to consign Tiananmen to history and as time passes that is just what was happening.  

Посмотрите эту картинку и найдите очевидную связь с тем, что будет на последующем видео:

It happened the day after, in the morning a column of tanks had started to leave Tiananmen Square. Out of nowhere this man in a white shirt ran in front of the tank, the tank stopped and for a heart-stopping 4 or 5 minutes there was this extraordinary drama. The big question was: what will happen? Will he be run over, will they shoot him? I saw that picture. A young man standing in front of the tank. We never knew who he is. And right now nobody knows where he is. I think I was pretty proud of my role at that time because I think finally; I can really do something to change history. - That was our contribution -being there reporting what was happening. It was historic. The People’s Republic of China is going to be the next superpower and what we were able to do is to provide a window for the world to peek through and see that beneath the facade there is much ferment, much unrest.  

Теперь посмотрите обзор событий на площади подробнее:

In China communism was forced to re-examine itself when students demanded change. Here’re scenes from Tiananmen Square. Hu Yaobang’s death on the 15th of April 1989 was the catalyst for everything that followed in that spring. Hu Yaobang was to many Chinese a a symbol of hopes for reform in he’d been ousted by Communist party hardliners two years earlier. - Due to his death we think we have to do something like go to street to show our sorry for him. - CNN had been there and covered that historic summit between Deng Xiao Ping and Mikhail Gorbachev but the crowds just multiplied and increased. They had taken over Tiananmen Square demanding democracy. Unbelievable, we all came here to cover the summit and we walked into a revolution.  We couldn’t believe that the government tolerated this, it had let it go on as far. They have been embarrassed and they have been humiliated on TV every night around the world and they pulled the plug on it. And now as we report to our viewers around the world martial law has been declared in Beijing.  I’m being told that the government officials are coming into the CNN control room now and they said: we are here to tell you that the coverage of Gorbachev is over – your task is over. The bosses were saying that for us to go off the air we would require it in writing. Our policy is the government has ordered us to shut down our facility; we are shutting down our facility.  Can sign off? ... OK,we’ve heard the orders, we have instructions from headquarters in Atlanta. - After martial law was declared and they pulled a plug on a broadcast we didn’t have a way to get our pictures out, so we would do something called pigeon them out and in those days it was fairly easy to do, you would take your tape to the airport, a copy of your tape when you find a sympathetic person to carry the tape for you and in this case we had tapes taken to Hong Kong. On the afternoon of June 3d I mean you could feel it you could just feel things were going in a bad direction. Late in that evening the solders began to move in. I could see below me little bicycle carts where people who’d been shot or dumped in the back and then the rider would peddle furiously taking these victims off to hospitals. One of my classmates came back from Tiananmen Square and he told me the troops shot at student. - And as dawn broke the People’s Liberation Army was in full control of the square: the student movement had been crushed.  

Вернемся в современный Гонконг

It’s the 25th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre. You are looking at the images of the violence on June 4th 1989 when Chinese military cracked down on thousands of pro-reform protestors, hundreds perhaps a thousand were killed when soldiers opened fire on the crowds in central Beijing. The number of casualties has never been clear. Many of those victims were students. You are looking at the live feed of CNN’s coverage on a television in our Beijing bureau as you can see censors blacked out any mention of Tiananmen. Hong Kong is the only place in China where public observations of the anniversary are tolerated. 

Вы – герои, если дошли до этого момента! Вы уже поняли, что мы изучаем не историю Китая, а планетарный язык, на котором адекватно описываются мировые события. Но не только это: теперь для вас нет границ в понимании культурных явлений 

Вы слышали голоса Леонарда Коэна и Роджера Уотерса.

National Day in China. Pump and patriotism was the Communist Party state. In Hong Kong democracy protesters turn their back on the flag. For many the occupy movement looks eerily familiar to the student democracy movement of ‘89 in Tiananmen Square, even the iconic goddess of democracy as symbol too for this new generation.  Like in ‘89 the protesters know their true opposition is in Beijing. And few believe he will give in easily, because president Xi Jinping is perhaps China's most powerful leader in decades.
They're not old enough to drive, but they say their political vision is clear. I think that we have to fight for the Hong Kong democracy and we want universal suffrage. These high school students are doing their homework and listen to lectures but they're not in class. This is a school boycott and the goal - to pressure China to giving Hong Kong full universal suffrage, one person – one vote plus the ability to choose its own candidates independent of Beijing. Many of these young protesters weren’t even born back in 1997, when Hong Kong returned to Chinese rule. After the handover Hong Kong was given a wide range of civil liberties and a measure of autonomy. But as Beijing asserts its political authority over Hong Kong, many of these young protesters believe their way of life is under threat. In August Beijing ruled that candidates for the city's top post must be selected by a committee. Hong Kong students turned out in force to challenge that decision. 13,000 young protesters took part in this rally at Chinese University. A sea of students bearing posters and signs or calling for greater political freedom. It's a sight that's invited comparisons to another student protests. Tiananmen Square in 1989 attracting the support of Mainland Chinese dissidents who were there. - I'm a part of Hong Kong’s fight. I have the same responsibilities they have to push for protection of Hong Kong's freedom, justice and democracy. At the same time using that push to protection of Hong Kong to guard the spark, so that in the future it could ignite the whole of Mainland China. Many of Hong Kong’s young people are unfazed. They say they have fought and won before. Two years ago 15-year-old Joshua Wong rallied 100,000 people to challenge the government's plan to introduce a more pro-Beijing curriculum in Hong Kong public schools. That movement forced the government to withdraw the proposal. - I am prepared to go to court or go to jail. It takes a small group of people to change society. If no one is willing to put in an effort society will not change. Risking detention and arrest in a challenge to China that they say is far from child's play.

Протестные настроения всегда вызывали подъем творчества. Зонтики использовались во время протестов в Гонконге не только против дождя, но и против полицейских средств разгона демонстраций (pepper spray, etc). Посмотрите сюжет о ‘umbrella movement’. 

Если вы внимательно смотрели видео о настроениях студентов, то поймете суть движения ‘scholarism’ В его основе - протест против обязательного предмета – патриотического воспитания. Этот предмет в 2012 году был навязан Пекином. Назывался в переводе с китайского на английский. Инструкция к курсу, в частности, утверждала, что компартия Китая – единая, продвинутая и совершенно бескорыстная. В то же самое время в ней говорилось, что обе партии США – яростные противники, из-за вражды которых страдают простые американцы. Школьники Гонконга, видимо, впитали на генетическом уровне вкус к свободе и отвращение к подобной пропаганде. Посмотрите сюжет на эту тему, но он закончится очень неожиданно:

Hong Kong pro-democracy push began actually 2 years ago with a tiny band of teenagers armed only with yellow ribbons and a movement they called «scholarism». It was led by a 15 year old named Joshua Wong who’s captured all the headlines recently and the protest successfully opposed the imposition of a pro-communist school curriculum. That fight has exploded of course into a battle cry for political freedom for all of Hong Kong.  So now imagine a world with that very active civil disobedience the same weapon used by Gandy, Dr. King and Mandela to end generations of oppression is today a point of controversy in textbooks in the United States of America. In the state of Colorado students and teachers in one county are boycotting classes to protest changes in their history curriculum. They’re challenging a new school board directive that diminishes the importance of civil disobedience in the nation story and promote instead what it seems to be more patriotic agenda. Who knew that two would mutually exclusive? And that’s it for a program tonight. Thanks for watching and goodbye from London! 

Получается, что патриотизм несовместим со свободой не только в авторитарных странах, но и в тех, которые принято считать свободными? В следующем модуле мы обсуждаем искусство, однако первый объект будет посвящен именно этому противоречию.

По сравнению с 90-ми годами прошлого века Россия 21 века не демонстрирует движение в сторону увеличения свобод. Но за последние четыре десятка лет прогресс налицо. Об этом свидетельствует хотя бы этот сюжет:

Today this St Petersburg’s children’s choir is more likely to sing John Lennon than Lenin. To young Russians USSR is distant history.

О разнице и общем слов chorus и choir

A choir refers to a group of singers, but a chorus may include dancers or actors. The two terms share some meanings but are not interchangeable. For example, chorus can refer to the refrain of a song, but choir can't. Both words can refer to groups of people or animals.

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.