00-74. Падение Берлинской стены и «крупнейшая геополитическая катастрофа»

Berlin Wall, Putin

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Падение Берлинской стены и «крупнейшая геополитическая катастрофа»                  KW!

Как вы думаете, что мешает вам понять сказанное основателем Википедии? 

We may not fear that the current US government will become a police state. But we've allowed them to build all the machinery that they need. The East German STASI would envy this level of access to everybody's thoughts.

Вернемся к этой загадке чуть позднее. Одно из слов, которое, вероятно, помешало вам понять сюжет, вы встретите и в этом видео:

Английский язык – язык Европы и мира. Понять Европу без понимания последнего столетия развития Германии невозможно. Но Берлин и его позорная для человечества Стена играют особую роль в понимании и нашей страны. Посмотрите фрагменты фильма CNN О В.Путине. Фильм снят в плотном контакте с Президентом РФ и его пиар-службами. Содержит, как явно заказные моменты, так и честную критику российского режима. Критика направлена и на Д.Трампа (без этого CNN не может):

December 5th, 1989, it was a cold night in Dresden, East Germany, and it would change the course of Vladimir Putin's life. The Berlin Wall had just fallen. All over East Germany, angry crowds roamed the streets, lashing out at symbols of communist rule. That night in Dresden, they found a target, the local KGB headquarters. A mob surrounded the building. As the hour grew later, the crowd grew larger. Inside, peering through the curtains was a young KGB lieutenant colonel named Vladimir Putin. - He was terrified that they were going to storm the building. - Putin was a junior officer, but the boss was away. He was in charge. - The Berlin Wall had come down. Police went in to help, and he'd called for instructions. - Desperate for help, Putin dialed KGB headquarters in Moscow, over and over again. Finally one official told him simply Moscow is silent. - And I think it felt like a deep betrayal to him.  Vladimir Putin was on his own. He went down into the bowels of the building and fired up the furnace. - He finds himself in the basement at a furnace shoveling documents as he hears demonstrations out on the street. - They are burning the secret files so fast that the furnace is blowing up. - Putin torched thousands of pages of KGB documents and secrets. As the crowd closed in. With the fire still raging, Putin went outside and faced them all. By himself. There are armed guards inside, he told them. They will shoot you. - And he's able to bluff his way out of it and tell the crowd, don't try it here. You're going to get hurt. - Putin's threat worked. The mob dispersed. - This is the drama that stays with Putin all the time. The fear of popular uprising. 
- Vladimir Putin quells that fear with absolute control. This is what control looks like. In one of the world's busiest cities, the streets are emptied for Vladimir Putin's motorcade. - Twelve million people simply disappear on Putin's inauguration day. The event was perfectly produced for Russian television. Every detail, flawlessly planned. Almost every detail. A few Russians did not follow the script. - Literally a block away from his inauguration was a cafe called Jean Jacques where the opposition liked to gather and drink wine and drink coffee. And the riot police descend on the cafe. They started arresting people sitting at their tables outside, turning over tables, breaking cups and plates. - The crackdown was not shown on Russian television. - For 94 percent of Russians, their main source of news is television. If it didn't happen on television, it didn't happen. - Putin controls television. - There is absolutely no critical words about Vladimir Putin on the Russian air waves. None. Not one word. Putin controls everything in Russia. - Putin has an untrammeled authority. I don't see any checks on his power. He is able to make singular, rapid decisions. The absolute is in there. It's unlike anything I have seen in Russia. - All that power is propped up by an astonishing approval rating, 80 percent, and that's according to American pollsters. 

Необходимо отвлечься на ‘сhecks’, а вернее, на понятие Checks and Balances, презрение к которому лежит в основе всех бед определенных общественно-политических систем.

The system of checks and balances is an important part of the Constitution. With checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This way, no one branch becomes too powerful. Each branch “checks” the power of the other branches to make sure that the power is balanced between them.

Есть и такой взгляд на слово check в этой конструкции

- We will get at the truth of all this, but to do that, we need to go back to the final days of the country Vladimir Putin loved. - I think that down deep in Putin, there is this sense of extraordinary humiliation over the collapse of the Soviet Union. Because it wasn't just the Soviet Union, it was the Russian empire. - Putin returned home from his KGB posting in 1990 to a country he did not recognize. The USSR had been transformed by Mikhail Gorbachev and his policy of openness known as glasnost. - A lot of things happened very quickly. - Coca-cola. Coca-cola. - The romance with things Western. - Freedom came fast, and it exposed the rot at the heart of Soviet communism. Across the Soviet Union, hundreds of thousands of people began demanding democracy and national independence. It was once again what Putin feared most. The people rising up. And finally the people won. - Tonight in Moscow at the Kremlin, the red flag of the failed Soviet Union at last came down and the flag of Russia rose. - Three hundred years of history erased. - Soviet institutions like the KGB simply ceased to exist. - Vladimir Putin views the breakup of the Soviet Union, as he said himself, to be the greatest geopolitical tragedy of the 20th century.

Вы заметили, что, как только начинают рушиться тоталитарные режимы, тут же появляется Кока-Кола и Макдоналдс? Кстати, страны, которые имеют и имели эти рестораны, никогда не воевали друг с другом. На самом деле, потребительские настроения – один из самых мощных разрушителей режимов. Не только потому, что плод сладок, а потому, что их отсутствие и постоянный поиск унижают человеческое достоинство. При коммунизме в СССР не было мясных продуктов, приличной одежды. Импортные товары были на пике популярности, поэтому люди захотели жить иначе…

Посмотрите песни Криса Ри ‘Texas’

We got to get out of here – главные слова этой странной песни, в которой появляются мифические американские солдаты. Они чинят ужасный автомобиль под названием Trabant – восточногерманский аналог нашего «Запоржца». Обратите внимание на радость детей, получивших Кока-Колу и бигмаки…

У многих из нас в жизни была кличка, а порой еще и не одна. Одной из кличек нашего Президента была «Штази». Он получил ее от коллег, работая в команде Собчака в Петербурге, и нисколько на нее не обижался – ведь КГБ очень плотно сотрудничала с секретной службой ГДР (GDR). Штази – одна из самых хорошо организованных секретных служб за всю их историю. Организовав тотальную слежку за своими гражданами, Штази копировала всю переписку, хранила запахи диссидентов и т.д. Посмотрите трейлер к изумительному германскому фильму 

Теперь можно вернуться к первому видео этого модуля и прочитать слова основателя Википедии: We may not fear that the current US government will become a police state. But we've allowed them to build all the machinery that they need. The East German STASI would envy this level of access to everybody's thoughts.

Что это был за феномен? Как стена была разрушена?

Падение Берлинской Стены вдохновило жителей Чехословакии, и стремление людей к свободе восторжествовало в считанные дни:

Германия большая. Почему Стена не была похожа на Великую Китайскую стену, которую видно с космоса?   Все просто: она была только в Берлине:

It snaked 150 kilometers through the heart of Berlin physically dividing the city…
The attention of the anxious world is focused on East and West Germany and Berlin.
…symbolically dividing the world.
Mr. Gorbachev teared down this wall. 
And then one night twenty years ago it all came down. 
Hello. I’m Jim Clancy. There’s almost nothing left of the wall here today. On November the ninth, 1991 tens of thousands of Germans, east and west, began tearing it down. It was a celebration that lasted for days capping a dizzying chain of events with roots dating back before the wall existed. 
After World War II the victorious allies – The US, Britain, France and The Soviet Union divided Germany into occupation zones; they did the same with the capital Berlin. As Germany rebuild the soviets promoted communism within the areas they controlled while The West pushed capitalism and democracy. By 1949 the Allies ceded control back to the Germans. Two countries then emerged – the free market west Germany and communist east Germany.
Though Berlin sat in the middle of east Germany the democratic sectors remained part of the west. It was an uneasy relationship and between 1949 and 1961 more than 15 percent of East Germany’s population escapes to the west. 
And then on a morning of August 13th 1961 Berliners awoke in the city divided literally overnight East-German soldiers strung  up barbed wire, blocked off roads. The barbed wire gave way to a  four-meter concrete wall, mine field, dog runs and guards who had orders to shoot to kill. 
And yet East Germans kept trying to escape, some were motivated by repression, others wanted to reunite with family. Whatever the reasons even for the estimated two hundred who died trying escape was worth the risks.

Погружаемся далее в тему

Какие события вдохновили немцев сбросить оковы коммунизма? Найдите ответ в этом видео:

Удивительно, но не весь свободный мир разделял необходимость объединения Германии:

Когда-то наша школа использовала слоган «Английский для свободных людей». Как вы заметили, философия не изменилась. В этом коротком фрагменте вы услышите голос Кеннеди. Хочется верить в то, что вы принадлежите к группе, упомянутой в его словах. Даже, если никогда не были в Берлине.

All free men wherever they may live are citizens of Berlin.

Эти слова знает весь (образованный) западный мир. Они из речи Кеннеди в Берлине:

Hello, Berlin! Thank you, Chancellor Merkel, for your leadership, your friendship, and the example of your life – from a child of the East to the leader of a free and united Germany. As I've said, Angela and I don't exactly look like previous German and American leaders. But the fact that we can stand here today, along the fault line where a city was divided, speaks to an eternal truth: No wall can stand against the yearning of justice, the yearnings for freedom, the yearnings for peace that burns in the human heart. Mayor Wowereit, distinguished guests, and especially the people of Berlin and of Germany – thank you for this extraordinarily warm welcome. In fact, it's so warm and I feel so good that I'm actually going to take off my jacket, and anybody else who wants to, feel free to. We can be a little more informal among friends. As your Chancellor mentioned, five years ago I had the privilege to address this city as senator. Today, I'm proud to return as President of the United States. And I bring with me the enduring friendship of the American people, as well as my wife, Michelle, and Malia and Sasha. You may notice that they're not here.  The last thing they want to do is to listen to another speech from me.  So they're out experiencing the beauty and the history of Berlin.  And this history speaks to us today. Here, for thousands of years, the people of this land have journeyed from tribe to principality to nation-state; through Reformation and Enlightenment, renowned as a "land of poets and thinkers," among them Immanuel Kant, who taught us that freedom is the "unoriginated birthright of man, and it belongs to him by force of his humanity." Here, for two centuries, this gate stood tall as the world around it convulsed – through the rise and fall of empires; through revolutions and republics; art and music and science that reflected the height of human endeavor, but also war and carnage that exposed the depths of man's cruelty to man. It was here that Berliners carved out an island of democracy against the greatest of odds. As has already been mentioned, they were supported by an airlift of hope, and we are so honored to be joined by Colonel Halvorsen, 92 years old – the original "candy bomber." We could not be prouder of him. I hope I look that good, by the way, when I'm 92. During that time, a Marshall Plan seeded a miracle, and a North Atlantic Alliance protected our people.  And those in the neighborhoods and nations to the East drew strength from the knowledge that freedom was possible here, in Berlin – that the waves of crackdowns and suppressions might therefore someday be overcome. Today, 60 years after they rose up against oppression, we remember the East German heroes of June 17th.  When the wall finally came down, it was their dreams that were fulfilled. Their strength and their passion, their enduring example reminds us that for all the power of militaries, for all the authority of governments, it is citizens who choose whether to be defined by a wall, or whether to tear it down. 

Берлинская стена вдохновляла множество творческих людей на создание различных произведений, в числе которых, например, Элтон Джон с его песней Nikita. Песня посвящена любви к девушке, которая служит в армии ГДР, охраняя границу. Вот фрагмент этой песни:

Hey Nikita is it cold in your little corner of the world. You could roll around the world and never find a warmer soul to know. Oh I saw you by the wall. Ten of your tin soldiers in a row with eyes that looked like ice on fire. The human heart a captive in the snow… Oh Nikita You will never know…never know anything about my home

Элтон Джон оказался пророком: And if there comes a time Guns and gates no longer hold you in. And if you're free to make a choice just look towards the west and find a friend.

MAKE A CHOICE – в этих простых словах сила, которая разрушает любые стены.

Уже через 8 месяцев после падения Берлинской Стены уже известный вам Роджер Уотерс организовал в Берлине вместе с другими музыкантами шоу по мотивам альбома The Wall (для тех, кто незнаком с творчеством Pink Floyd, заметим, что изначально The Wall – универсальная тема, которая не имела прямого отношение к Берлину). На концерт пришло 350 тысяч человек, еще 100 тысяч наблюдали издалека… 

Если Вы погрузитесь в тематику The Wall, то поймете, что «школьная тема» имеет прямое отношение к несвободе, к «стенам»:

"You! Yes, you! Stand still, lady! – When we grew up and went to school, there were certain teachers, who would hurt the children any way they could. By pouring out their derision, upon anything we did, exposing every weakness, however, carefully hidden by the kids. "Hahahahaha..." But in the town, it was well known that when they got home at night, their fat and psychopathic wives, would thrash them within inches of their lives! Ooh!!! - We don't need no education. We don't need no thought control. No dark sarcasm in the classroom. Teacher leave them kids alone. Hey, teacher! Leave them kids alone! All in all, it's just another brick in the wall. All in all, you're just another brick in the wall. We don't need no education. We don't need no thought control. No dark sarcasm in the classroom. Teacher leave them kids alone. Hey, teacher! Leave us kids alone! All in all, you're just another brick in the wall. All in all, you're just another brick in the wall.    Wrong! (repeated)

Это тоже видео с концерта в Берлине. Маски в руках зрителей – это символы одинаковых лиц, продукция стандартного жесткого образования (если хотите, найдите это видео в альбоме The Wall)

Разрушение стен – это повод для оптимизма, а не «геополитические катастрофы». Катастрофы – это возведение «железных занавесов». У.Черчилль в своей знаменитой речи в Фултоне (Миссури), произнесенной 5 марта 1946 года произнес мрачные слова: “It is my duty…to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”

В заключение посмотрим еще раз видео на тему разрушения стены. Обратите внимание на то, что продажа ее осколков превратилась в своеобразный бизнес для торговцев сувенирами:

P.S. от основателя школы Ю.Лирмака

На последней фотографии – сумочка и фрагмент Берлинской Стены. Это подарок, который я привез своей годовалой дочери из Берлина. Когда становишься папой в 57 лет, нужно осознавать, что есть большая вероятность не донести до своих детей все, что хотелось бы. Мой подарок будет ждать времени, когда дочь достигнет подросткового возраста и сможет оценить его смысл. Надеюсь, взрослые ей помогут понять, где зло, а где его альтернатива. К сожалению, есть шанс, что в ее учебниках слом Берлинской Стены и «железного занавеса» будет рассматриваться как «крупнейшая геополитическая катастрофа 20 века».

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.