00-56. Animal Farm (Orwellian world Light)

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Animal Farm

С этого романа и фильма (а иногда даже мультфильма) легче всего начинать изучать наследие английского писателя и философа Джорджа Оруэлла. Во многих странах книга входит в школьную программу. В СССР книга Animal Farm была издана лишь во время коллапса режима – в 1988 году…

 Если мы решили уделить Дж. Оруэллу  три модуля, значит, это имеет прямое отношение к изучению английского языка и пониманию происходящего в мире. Если вы доверяли нам в предыдущих шестидесяти модулях, просим это делать и в конце нашего курса. Если вы осилите информацию последних модулей, то пронесете это настроение и мысли через всю жизнь. Просто поверьте.

На русском языке название книги переводят зачастую неправильно:

Ведь до изгнания собственника фермы животными за плохое управление она называлась так:

Manor = a unit of English rural territorial organization (словарь Вебстера). Это просто «поместье». Когда гордые животные взяли власть в этом поместье, ферма стала их. Т.е. вряд ли бы они гордились надписью «Скотный Двор». Может, лучше «Ферма Животных»? Посмотрите трейлер к фильму:

Ферма управлялась плохо. Посмотрите эпизод:

Where are you? I've got a train to catch. - Quick, she's coming, quick. - Wake up, you drunken pig!

С чего началась революция на ферме? Со сна, который приснился самой авторитетной свинье:

The wisest of us all has words which must now be spoken. These words came to Old Major in a dream and must now be heard. - My friends! I do not think I will be with you for many days more. I have had a long life. And now it is my duty to pass on to you such as I understand of the nature of our lives. Animalkind is born to a miserable, laborious, and short existence. We are given only just enough food as will sustain the breath in our bodies for the work we do, and when our usefulness has come to an end, we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty. - No! - And who pray is responsible for our suffering? Man! Man is our enemy.
Remove man, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished forever. Remove man, and the produce of our labor will be our own. Remove man, and overnight we will become free and equal.- Free and equal.  - Free and equal. -  I thought I was free. - Will it mean no harnesses? - You believe that, you'll believe anything. - We must never come to resemble man in anyway. - If there are no humans, who will brush my mane? - Oh, no. - And who will braid it with ribbons? - Did I hear someone say ribbons? I can get ribbons, I can get anything. - What you got to trade? - You shouldn't care about looking pretty for humans. But I like looking pretty for humans. - ...or engage in trade! - What? No trade? Amongst us animals there must be unity and comradeship. All animals are friends. All humans are enemies.
Now, my friends, I will tell you about the end of my dream and the song that came to me. It's a song you must learn. It's a song of justice and freedom. Beasts of the world, we shall unite. Rise up and ready for the fight. Soon or late that day will be, when man's defeated and we are free. Soon or late that day will be, when man's defeated and we are free. Our limbs be tired and worn, our dreams will not be broken. Our hearts will not be torn, our dreams will not be broken. Our hearts will not be torn...

После смерти идеолога равенства началась эксплуатация его культа:

Friends, we must always remember that Old Major died for every one of us. And now we each have a duty to him. Revolution!

После революции и изгнания людей жизнь казалась безоблачной:

And so at last the farm belonged to us, and we were free. We now knew we could live without fear and Snowball would show us the way. - Can you read? - Not yet, but I will learn. - That’s good. - Snowball, the cows are in great pain. They need milking. - Well, I could try. All right now, just hold still. Oh, Lord. Oh, right. I just need practice. Can you see anything? - Of course I can't see.  I don't have the eyesight, do I?  - Well, can you smell anything? - What? Other than you? Hey, get off!

В книге есть интересные детали насчет молока. После того, как коров удалось подоить, молоко пропало. Все революции начинаются с идеи, но быстро заканчиваются воровством.

Come here, come and look. See, I have a glorious surprise. - What are you doing? - Well, what does it say? - That’s the farm's name. And as the farm now belongs to us, what words have I painted? - Us farm? -  Animal Farm. - Animal Farm. - Well... - If you can write, you must be able to read. - Yes, we pigs have taught ourselves to read and write. - What is it? - I think it's my time. - You're dying? - No. Puppies. - Puppies...Puppies. Quick, what do we do? Are you sure you're okay? - Boxer, go with the others. I'll be fine. - If you're sure...- I'm sure.

Щенки, как и молоко, тоже быстро пропадут – их отберут у матери для формирования гвардии одной из главных свиней – той, которая хитрей, но не блещет инженерным умом (Napoleon). Сначала популярность начал набирать Snowball:

Surely you can see that Snowball's idea for a windmill is a waste of labor. - It's not a waste. Once built, it will ease our labors. - Our efforts must be directed at feeding ourselves, arming ourselves, barricading our borders and defending animalism. – No! No! For animalism to prosper we must convert all the animals on all the farms. We must send our pigeons out to spread the message of revolution. - We will vote on it. - All those in favor of Napoleon, and all those in favor of Snowball.  Yeah. - Animals, think of the benefits of a windmill. Yes, it will be hard work to build but once it’s built it could save us so much labor that we may have to work only three days a week. Now, all those in favor. 

Авторитарная власть всегда «похищает щенков», чтобы использовать их для своей защиты:

- You pig. Snowball... - Puppies? - Puppies, leave him, it’s Snowball. Leave him! Puppies! My puppies had become Napoleon’s servants. Snowball was banished and Napoleon took control. – Friends! Snowball is a traitor and a criminal. - But he was a brave fighter.- Bravery is not enough! Loyalty is more important!

В последней фразе – суть авторитарного управления. Кстати, впоследствии Наполеон присвоил себе идею строительства мельницы, а все неудачи приписывались вредительству со стороны Снежка (для этого даже не заделали дыру в ограде, через которую он сбежал – чтобы все объяснять его вылазками).

Сначала ферма жила по заповедям

Потом все они были модифицированы. Например: No animal shall drink alcohol была модифицирована так: "No animal shall drink alcohol to excess". Очень важно для репрессивной машины было изменить эту заповедь: No animal shall kill any other animal. Просто добавили:

"No animal shall kill any other animal without cause"

Но главное – было изменить основу анимализма (о равенстве):

Но не только репрессиями управляется общество несвободных особей: нужны подконтрольные средства массовой информации:

A spontaneous demonstration took place. A grateful duck has written a new song for our beloved leader, and she's here joined by chorus of the Animal Guard. Praise to him, the founder of all our wisdom... Long to live the ruler of our farm, Napoleon. Mighty leader, mighty leader, watching over us. end on high… Animals! Never again will we be threatened by our enemies. I decree this farm will now devote itself to the making of weapons, to the building of walls, to the protection of ourselves and our way of life. The revolution is over. All animals are now free.

Вам не кажется, что в последних словах Вождя есть что-то «трамповское»? Построить стену, производить оружие и защищать ‘our way of life’?

Back in the farm yard, it’s lunchtime for the chickens. Chickens are also one of God's wonders on the  farm. This mother hen is showing her chicks how to look for grain. God has given them a sharp bill so they will have no trouble picking up the bits of food. All of the farm animals need lots of water. - Well, of course we do. - Animals. Napoleon has arranged for this television to be here for your enjoyment and relaxation. This, my friends, is animalism in practice. But it is also animalism for us pigs to have the milk and apples.

На видео не слышно возмущения животных: That doesn't sound fair to me. I love milk and apples. - We all do.

Вывод: пропаганда необходима для организации неравного распределения благ.

Немного снизим градус серьезности. Заметили слово ‘bill’? Это «клюв». Но есть и ‘beak’!

What Is The Difference Between A Beak And A Bill?

Not a thing - the words are synonymous. Ornithologists tend to use the word “bill” more often than “beak,” and I personally tend to use “beak” most when referring to songbirds with pointed bills, but I’ve seen both words used in reference to a wide variety of species. But if you tell that old joke about the duck going into the drugstore to buy some clapstick, and the cashier asks how he’s going to pay for it and the duck says, “put it on my bill”—well, that joke just doesn’t work if you say “beak.”

Chapctick – гигиеническая помада. Слово beak используется, например так

They don’t seize their prey with their beak.

Они ее протыкают, если вы успели заметить.

Несколько слов от человека, который был в команде создателей фильма. Его вдохновила тайком провезенная в страну книга Animal Farm (он жил в Венгрии). По его словам, книга стала надеждой и «Библией», так как хоть кто-то на Западе понимал, что творится в коммунистическом лагере. Уехав из Венгрии в США, дождавшись развития технологий, он принял участие в создании фильма. Обращайте внимание не на произношение, а на смысл сказанного:

The book was published in 1945, I was then a young man in Hungary under Russian communist …rules. You never knew what will happen during the night; knock on the door with gunned people taking able-bodied people away, robbing them for money and jewelry. We’ve found that destruction of the middle-class, we found no freedom, we couldn’t speak without looking behind our shoulder. It was oppression, refugees were leaving the country in hordes through iron curtain; and through landmines and electrocutions. It was horrible state of mind and I think it probably sounds very familiar today. We didn’t think that there was anybody in the West that cared or knew what’s happening. Not until a book was smuggled into Hungary. George Orwell’s Animal Farm. This became our bible, this became our hope. At least one man out there knew what we are going through.
Because it deals with something that unfortunately been with us for thousands of years and we somehow cannot get rid of - which is dictatorship, terrorism. And look at the headlines of today and you know why this book is around. This book is just as valid today as it was 55 years ago. It would have been just as valid during Genghis Khan’s rule as today or Attila the Khan’s rule than now. It’s basic wisdom and trying to show people who don’t go through these things. In America we are very fortunate. We’ve been shielded so far from all this kind of a terror. But seemingly we witness it and then again it happens, we witness it and then again it happens and do nothing about it. Something has to happen and Orwell will there all the time reminding us that something has to happen. … I hope they will understand a bit better and more that what goes through during these oppressions in people’s lives and hope they will take away wisdom that it hopefully never happens here. We cannot solve the problems of the world, we cannot rub out every dictatorship there is. The new will crop up.  But at least we should be able to protect our own land and our own freedom. And freedom is what this is all about. If we don’t have freedom we stop being human beings. And that is importance of this book.

Итак, главный вывод из слов этого старика:

And freedom is what this is all about. If we don’t have freedom we stop being human beings.

Теперь вы можете догадаться, почему книги Оруэлла нельзя было достать в СССР и почему их выбрасывали из кубинских библиотек («Остров Свободы» - это ненависть к свободе).

Вы благополучно завершили изучение самого легкого для понимания произведения Дж. Оруэлла. Возможно, вам понравилось. Но гораздо важнее разобраться в идеях романа 1984 – как чисто лингвистических, так и иных. Фильм «1984» начинается с «пятиминутки ненависти» и исполнения гимна Океании – одной из супердержав «несветлого» будущего:

Дж.Оруэлл еще в 1946 году писал: “ In our age there is no such thing as "keeping out of politics." All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find -- this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify - that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought”.

Если хотите выработать иммунитет и защитить свой разум и язык, обязательно пройдите материал следующих двух модулей.

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.