00-11 Venus

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Venus

Начнем с названия планеты. Прочтите и попробуйте найти ошибку в этих фразах:

Venus, the second planet from the sun, is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty and is the only planet named after a female. Venus may have been named after the most beautiful deity of the pantheon because it shone the brightest among the five planets known to ancient astronomers.

https://www.space.com/44-venus-second-planet-from-the-sun-brightest-planet-in-solar-system.html

Deity = божество

Какую планету «женского рода» упустили из виду авторы? Собственную, конечно! Забыли про Mother Earth:

Впрочем, это все лирика: и Землю и Венеру в научной литературе называют просто “it”. Так же, как и животных в английском языке, между прочим, но пусть феминистки спят спокойно: так же называют Jupiter, Mars и все остальные «мужские» планеты. Почему нам интересна Венера? Помимо чисто научного интереса есть и научно-практический: знание историю этой планеты, можно строить модели развития нашей собственной. Из того же источника: “Venus’ atmosphere traps heat from the Sun as an extreme version of the greenhouse effect that warms Earth. The temperatures on Venus are hot enough to melt lead”.

В древние времена полагали, что на закате и на восходе солнца можно видеть две разные звезды, хотя на самом деле это была в обоих случаях планета Венера. Любопытно, что именно Люцифер управлял светом, но это было до его конфликта с тем, кто контролирует всю энергетику Вселенной – от Бога:

In ancient times, Venus was often thought to be two different stars, the evening star and the morning star — that is, the ones that first appeared at sunset and sunrise. In Latin, they were respectively known as Vesper and Lucifer. In Christian times, Lucifer, or "light-bringer," became known as the name of Satan before his fall.

Христиане предвосхитили своими мифами реальную обстановку на Венере: However, further observations of Venus in the space age show a very hellish environment. This makes Venus a very difficult planet to observe from up close, because spacecraft do not survive long on its surface.

https://theconversation.com

Это название публикации известного канадского ученого, который очень плотно сотрудничает с Томским государственным университетом:

На этом видео - заседание английского разговорного клуба, который до пандемии несколько лет работал на ГГФ ТГУ. Ричард задает вопросы и сам на них отвечает:

What is the biggest volcano in the solar system? And the answer is: Olympus Mons on planet Mars. It is 25 km high and about 500 km across.
What is the age of the Earth and the Solar system? And the answer is: 4 billion 500 million 67 million years.

Почитаем, что написано в статье Ричарда:

We can learn a lot about climate change from Venus, our sister planet. Venus currently has a surface temperature of 450℃ (the temperature of an oven’s self-cleaning cycle) and an atmosphere dominated by carbon dioxide (96 per cent) with a density 90 times that of Earth’s. Venus is a very strange place, totally uninhabitable, except perhaps in the clouds some 60 kilometres up where the recent discovery of phosphine may suggest floating microbial life. But the surface is totally inhospitable. However, Venus once likely had an Earth-like climate. According to recent climate modelling, for much of its history Venus had surface temperatures similar to present day Earth. It likely also had oceans, rain, perhaps snow, maybe continents and plate tectonics, and even more speculatively, perhaps even surface life. Less than one billion years ago, the climate dramatically changed due to a runaway greenhouse effect. It can be speculated that an intensive period of volcanism pumped enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to cause this great climate change event that evaporated the oceans and caused the end of the water cycle.

Uninhabitable = unfit for habitation, not inhabitable. Есть глагол “to inhabit” – «населять». Обратите внимание на то, что прилагательное «необитаемый» звучит иначе. Например, uninhabited island – остров, на котором никто не обитает; uninhabitable island – это остров, на котором жить невозможно (какие-нибудь скалы, кишащие змеями).

Озабоченные экологи не нашли бы в этой статье аргументов в пользу своих устрашающих сценариев глобального потепления на Земле: парниковый эффект возник на Венере вследствие вулканической активности. Читаем дальше. В публикации есть утверждение: We believe in experts. We believe knowledge must inform decisions. Не можете перевести последнее предложение? Тогда просто загляните в словарь и поинтересуйтесь всеми значениями глагола to inform. Чаще заглядывайте в словари, и с определенного момента прекращайте пользоваться англо-русскими словарями. Иначе рискуете выучить англо-русский язык. Продолжаем знакомиться с публикацией Ричарда Эрнста:

Evidence of change

This hypothesis from the climate modellers inspired Sara Khawja, a master’s student in my group (co-supervised with geoscientist Claire Samson), to look for evidence in Venusian rocks for this proposed climatic change event. Since the early 1990s, my Carleton University research team — and more recently my Siberian team at Tomsk State University — have been mapping and interpreting the geological and tectonic history of Earth’s remarkable sister planet. Soviet Venera and Vega missions of the 1970s and 1980s did land on Venus and take pictures and evaluated the composition of the rocks, before the landers failed due to the high temperature and pressure. However, our most comprehensive view of the surface of Venus has been provided by NASA’s Magellan spacecraft in the early 1990s, which used radar to see through the dense cloud layer and produce detailed images of more than 98 per cent of Venus’s surface.

Tessera = a small block of stone, tile, glass, or other material used in the construction of a mosaic.

Tesserae – множ. число

Ancient rocks

Our search for geological evidence of the great climate change event led us to focus on the oldest type of rocks on Venus, called tesserae, which have a complex appearance suggestive of a long, complicated geological history. We thought that these oldest rocks had the best chance of preserving evidence of water erosion, which is such an important process on Earth and should have occurred on Venus prior to the great climate change event. Given poor resolution altitude data, we used an indirect technique to try to recognize ancient river valleys. We demonstrated that younger lava flows from the surrounding volcanic plains had filled valleys in the margins of tesserae. To our astonishment these tesserae valley patterns were very similar to river flow patterns on Earth, leading to our suggestion that these tesserae valleys were formed by river erosion during a time with Earth-like climatic conditions. My Venus research groups at Carleton and Tomsk State universities are studying the post-tesserae lava flows for any geological evidence of the transition to extremely hot conditions.

Так что до того, как на Венере установился «режим ада», на планете текли реки…

Mysteries abound in our universe, but bit by bit, we are unlocking its secrets. 

To abound = изобиловать. Гораздо чаще, однако, встречаются существительное abundance и прилагательное abundant.

We now know that our galaxy contains billions of other planets – but how can we learn more about them? 
What traits do these exoplanets have? What are they made of? What are their environments like? How they evolved over time? Are they habitable? And can planets lose habitability over time? 
Imagine we could study one of these planets up close. We’d find one of similar size, mass, and composition as Earth.
By all accounts, this planet appears very similar to our own. We discover evidence that this world may have once had liquid water oceans and volcanoes – a setting that could have been favorable to life.
But over time, something drastic happened to this environment. This planet’s sun grew brighter and hotter - increasing the temperature here to the point that the oceans boiled away. And then gradually, the volcanic gases created a thick atmosphere with clouds of sulfuric acid. That once friendly environment was gone.
But all is not lost. The remnants of such a world may hold the key to understanding planetary evolution and habitability. The twist is that this isn’t science fiction, this planet does exist. And if we want to learn more about the past, present, and possible future of our planet and the billions of similar exoplanets out there – this mysterious one needs more study.
And it doesn’t reside in some distant solar system, truth be told, it sits right next door. This planet is Venus. And the more mysteries we can unravel here, the more answers we can find out there. 
After decades of research including multiple landers and orbiters science can definitively say: Venus sucks. Seriously that place is the worst with its boiling temperature, intense pressure, sulfuric acid rain and more.  But was it always this bad? According to new research from NASA and various universities in Sweden and in the US Venus might have actually been the first habitable world in the solar system. And it might have maintained a reasonable climate for billions of years finally rolling over into a runaway greenhouse effect just a few hundred million years ago. 
Today Venus is a different story although the planet is roughly the same size and mass as Earth, it has a dramatically different environment.  The average global surface temperature is about 475 degrees Celsius. Hot enough as I'm sure you've heard to melt lead. The atmospheric pressure on the surface of Venus is 90 times the pressure of Earth. Want to experience the same kind of pressure? Dive down one kilometer under the ocean and you'll get an idea.
How do we know? The Venera program: the Soviet Union sent a fleet of spacecraft in the 70s and 80's to try and land on the surface of Venus.  18 were sent 13 actually made it into the atmosphere and 10 survived all the way down to the surface able to send back some data to Earth before they expired in the brutal environment.
But we're looking at Venus 4.5 billion years after its formation with the rest of the solar system. And over those eons the Sun has been heating up, Venus has been getting dried out and many planetoids and asteroids have been smashing into each other.  But if we roll the clock back, when could Venus have been habitable and for how long?
A new paper entitled Was Venus the First Habitable World of our Solar System? was released in August 2019 - attempts to give us a glimpse into the venusian past.  It was written by Dr. Michel Way from NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies as well as researchers from Sweden, New York, Arizona and Maryland. According to the study, Venus probably started out with a similar overall composition to Earth, including the same amounts of water and gases in its atmosphere. Today, of course, it's bone-dry with a mere six quadrillion kilograms of water in its atmosphere. Now I know six quadrillion sounds like a lot and it is but Earth has more than 200,000 times as much water in its oceans and atmosphere. 
Astronomers were able to calculate how much water it used to have based on the ratio between deuterium and hydrogen in its atmosphere, and this indicates that it must have had much more in the ancient past.  

Вы должны знать, что у водорода есть два изотопа - дейтерий и тритий, ядра которых имеют один и два нейтрона, соответственно (водород не имеет вообще). Химические свойств водорода и дейтерия идентичны. Соотношение между водородом и дейтерием позволяет астрономам идентифицировать различные космические объекты.

Even though Earth's atmosphere is 78% nitrogen, Venus actually has double that amount, and of course an insane amount of carbon dioxide. Planetary scientists have calculated that the ancient Venus had shallow seas across its surface measuring from four to 525 meters deep. 
The question is: how much did it have and how quickly did it lose its water? 
The traditionally accepted answer was that Venus lost its water quickly within the first hundred million years or so. Dr. Wayne and his team used Goddard's ROCKE- 3D simulator that I mentioned in the previous episode to simulate an ancient Venus with shallow oceans and an Earth-like atmosphere. They worked with a few assumptions. The first is the length of a day on Venus. Today the planet takes 116 days to turn on its axis. You could walk faster than Venus turns. Not only that, but the planet is rotating backward from the other worlds of the solar system. It's possible that Venus was smashed by a massive planetoid early on in its history, but it's also just possible that tidal interactions with the Sun slow down its rotation rate almost immediate and it's been rotating this slowly ever since. 
They had to consider the surface of ancient Venus, which is actually a total mystery and that's because the entire landscape was completely resurfaced just a few hundred million years ago, as if the planet turned itself inside out and it's believed this happened because Venus doesn't have plate tectonics like Earth.  Instead of regular volcanism releasing heat and pressure the planet resurfaced itself in a catastrophic event.  

Что заставило Венеру «вывернуться наизнанку»? Тот факт, что у нее отсутствует plate tectonics. Ричард рекомендует знать ответ на следующий вопрос:

In plate tectonics there are three types of boundaries between plates. What are they? The answer is: spreading ridges where two plates are moving apart and creating new oceanic crust between; subduction zones where one plate is diving underneath another and strike-slip or transform fault zones where two plates are moving by each other.
So they based their models on the current surface features of Venus as mapped out by NASA's Magellan spacecraft.  They filled the lowlands with water assuming an early ocean that was about 1/10 the volume of Earth's oceans. And they assumed that early Venus had an atmosphere as thick as Earth but made almost entirely of nitrogen with trace amounts of carbon dioxide and methane like Earth. And then they just ran the clock forward, watching how the planet changed over billions of years as the Sun heated up and Venus dried out.  What did they discover? 
The team performed five simulations based on different amounts of water coverage. Three of the scenarios assumed a deep ocean with an average of 310 meters. One scenario used the Earth's topography and a 310 meter deep average ocean. They also tried a scenario where all of Venus was covered by water 158 meters deep. They simulated the planet at 4.2 billion years ago, 715 million years go, and today watching as the amount of radiation coming from the Sun increased over time. Today Venus receives twice as much solar radiation per square meter as Earth does. In all five scenarios they found that Venus was able to maintain stable temperatures ranging from a maximum temperature of 50 Celsius to a minimum of 20 Celsius and it kept these stable temperatures for almost three billion years.
In the beginning the planet had an incredibly thick atmosphere of carbon dioxide, but as it cooled down over the next three billion years this carbon would have been drawn out of the atmosphere and locked away into silicate rocks. By 715 million years ago the planet would have had that one atmosphere of nitrogen and other trace gases. In fact, it could have remained stable with liquid water on its surface all the way until today. But some dramatic event happened hundreds of millions of years ago that transformed the planet forever. And it might have been linked to that volcanic resurfacing that I mentioned earlier. In fact, Earth had a similar situation about 250 million years ago when the largest volcanic eruption in our planet’s history covered an enormous amount of Siberia.  The eruptions carried on for two million years and led to one of the greatest mass extinctions in our planet’s history. So that, the worse and Venus never recovered. With the extreme heat from the molten rock releasing all that absorbed carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and leading to a runaway greenhouse effect. 
The simulations depend on the fact that Venus cooled down and was able to condense water onto its surface to form these global oceans. And they assumed that this volcanic resurfacing happened just once recently and wasn't a regular occurrence on Venus. It's incredible to think that Venus could have been habitable for billions of years, and if it wasn't for that catastrophic resurfacing it might still be habitable today.
 In order to get to the bottom of this mystery we need to return to Venus with new Orbiters, Balloons to study its atmosphere than even Rovers and Landers made of tough new heat tolerant electronics to explore its surface. Unfortunately there are no missions at Venus anymore and none are planned in the near future. So the mysterious history of Venus will have to remain that way for a few more years.  What do you think? 
DO YOU THINK VENUS SHOULD BE A HIGHER PRIORITY NOW?
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