00-73. Indifference as an option

Indifference

by

Indifference as an option                                                               KW!

Согласно Бернарду Шоу, самым страшным грехом является безразличие к людям:

The worst sin towards our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them: that's the essence of inhumanity.

Кстати, по-английски его фамилия читается не как «шоу», а как «шо». Вы уже знаете слова с аналогичным окончанием: saw, paw, raw, thaw, straw, etc.

Несколько лет назад ушел из жизни французский писатель Эли Визель. Лауреат Нобелевской  премии мира 1986 года посвятил свою жизнь борьбе с нетерпимостью, равнодушием и антисемитизмом. Во время мероприятий в ООН, посвященных шестидесятилетию освобождения Освенцима (Auschwitz) он сказал эти замечательные слова:

Turning point or watershed, that tremendous catastrophe which has traumatized history has forever changed man's perception of responsibility toward other human beings. And the sad, terrible fact is … had the Western nations intervened when Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia and Austria; had America accepted more refugees from Europe; had Britain allowed more Jews to return to Palestine, now Israel - their ancestral land; had the Allies bombed the railway lines leading to Birkenau in the time when the Hungarian Jews were there (killed 10 000 a day!), our tragedy might have been avoided, its scope surely diminished. This shameful indifference we must remember, just as we must remember to thank the few heroic individuals who, like Raoul Wallenberg, and the people from Chambon in France and some others but so few risked their lives to save Jews.
The Jewish witness as I am speaks of my people's suffering as a warning. He sounds the alarm so as to prevent these tragedies from being done to others. And yes, I’m convinced if the world had listened to those of us who tried to speak, and nobody listened, but if the world had listened we may have prevented Darfur, Cambodia, Bosnia and naturally, Rwanda. We must reject indifference as an option. Indifference always helps the aggressor, never his victims. And what is memory if not a noble and necessary response to and against indifference? So for today many of us are grateful to you for we see this holy day, grateful to you for listening, for being here and act. But the question…as a teacher I always believe in questions. The question is  - will the world ever learn?

В речи упомянуто несколько стран и Darfur – до 2001 года часть Судана, которая сейчас стала независимым государством под названием South Sudan. Чтобы понять, как все в мире взаимозависимо, прочтите эту короткую заметку

Конфликта на Балканах мы тоже касаться почти не будем:

In 1995 several months after the massacre we met Khuram Sulich who told us in chilling detail how he also had been marched to a killing field and had been lined up with hundreds of other men. They had been sprayed with machine gun fire and he managed to survive.  

Massacre – это «бойня» (к скоту отношения не имеет). Есть более универсальное слово – slaughter, которое может применяться и для описания технологий забоя скота. Вы его еще услышите в этом модуле. Интересен термин ‘killing field’ – это просто обширная территория, на которой погибло много людей в результате войны или геноцида. Трудно найти территорию, которая дала миру это понятие, но многие считают, что это была Кампучия (Камбоджа). Более того, этот термин был ‘coined’ камбоджийским журналистом по имени Dith Pran, которому удалось бежать из страны.

После ознакомления с этим модулем вы сможете понять, что означают следующие ниже кадры из фильма Beyond Borders. 

Трагедии Камбоджи мы уделим много времени, так как рафинированное зло достойно подробного рассмотрения. Достаточно сказать, что в результате геноцида погибло по разным оценкам от 2 до 3 миллионов человек. При населении страны в 7 миллионов цифра выглядит ужасающей. Тот, кто устроил этот кошмар – Пол Пот (Салот Сар) – получал образование во Франции, где вместе с электроникой изучал «Капитал» Маркса и другие основополагающие документы коммунистической идеологии. Вступил в Компартию Франции, но его личная идеология тяготела к национализму. Он вернулся в Камбоджу и продолжил борьбу за власть. 

Pol Pot dreamed of restoring the grandeur of Cambodia’s ancient past. Instead he turned his nation into one of the world’s poorest and the memory of two million dead still haunt his countrymen. - Cambodia will not recover from what it’s gone through for the next century; a hundred years from now people will still see the mark of this disaster that Pol Pot put on Cambodia. The Khmer Rouge and Pol Pot will go down as one of the two or three greatest genocidal mass-murdering brutal regimes the world has ever seen.
Paranoid, he saw enemies everywhere; he turned Cambodia into a hell on Earth, and the name Pol Pot became synonymous with mass murder. In building his perfect society his regime wreaked chaos: two million people died - nearly one in every four Cambodians. Throughout his life, Pol Pot deliberately obscured his past, and disguised his motives. - He was full of ambition but in a very quiet way he kept his ambition hidden in his own heart and never spoke to anyone about it. - His school however, was French and catholic nuns taught him to read and write. The tensions between Cambodian and European culture would shape the rest of his life. In 1941 when Pol Pot was 16, France no longer tried to hide its disregard for Cambodia installing the pliable 17-year-old prince Norodom Sihanouk come to throne who would prove to be a decisive force in Pol Pot’s life. Around the same time, Pol Pot enrolled at Cambodia’s top high school named after the new king. Here he mixed with the nations brightest young minds, who like him were opposed to both of French and the monarchy. Pol Pot soon became close friends with other young idealist like Ieng Sary. In 1949 these students became the 1st Cambodians ever to study abroad and were sent to Paris, the seat of colonial power. At 24 Pol Pot arrived in Paris just as international communism was at its speak. The city was buzzing with talk of revolution. Here on the left bank Pol Pot and his friends debated politics in their shabby flats. They were looking for an ideology that would free Cambodia from French colonialism and as they talked they came to believe that the answer was communism. - We learned the history of the communist party but in reality, we spoke more of national liberation. Working in his small flat above this café Pol Pot began developing his own political philosophy - a radical blend of communism and nationalism. 

Геноцид в Камбодже не похож на шаблонную ситуацию, когда неразумные дикари убивают друг друга из-за противоречий в глупых верованиях или в битве за примитивные блага, а просвещенный Запад вмешиваются и наводят порядок. Мало того, что в основе всего – марксизм (не слушайте тех, кто говорит про маоизм – основа одна), т.е. типично европейский продукт. Популярность Пол Пота и его товарищей росла на фоне ненависти к США, которые сбросили на Камбоджу больше бомб, чем когда-то было сброшено на фашистскую Германию. Цель была простая – уничтожить вьетнамских коммунистов, которые прятались на территории Камбоджи. 

… the war in neighboring Vietnam the communists (VC) used Cambodia as a hiding place. The US responded by dropping more bombs on Cambodia than they dropped during the whole World War 2.

Но не только беспощадные бомбардировки настроили крестьян против США – Пол Пот продвигал теорию, согласно которой главной движущей силой построения коммунизма является крестьянство, а не рабочие, живущие в городах. Считая, что оплот капитализма – это города, Пол Пот решил перевоспитать всех жителей городов, изгнав их в село. Сразу же после захвата столицы страны было организовано то, что прекрасно изображено на этих кадрах (фильм The Killing Fields):

В этом фрагменте – мелодия под названием Requiem for the City из альбома Майкла Олдфилда The Killing Fields. В конце этого модуля мы привели весь его концерт. Возможно, вам он понравится, несмотря на то, что он полон трагизма. Но сначала нужно пройти этот модуль весь.

«Перевоспитание» означало не только тяжелый труд в невыносимых условиях, но и непрерывное промывание мозгов тем, кому это можно было сделать. Интеллигенция поэтому уничтожалась. Знание иностранных языков было равнозначно смертному приговору. Даже ношение очков было смертельно опасно, так как глаза обычно портятся от чтения… Западные лекарства были запрещены и заменены на народные средства. Деньги отменены… Пол Пот ввел год номер НОЛЬ. Коммунизм восторжествовал. Эта античеловечная система не могла не вмешаться и в семейные отношения. Кадры из того же фильма:

Тем, кто внимательно читал роман Дж.Оруэлла «1984» или хотя бы смотрел одноименный фильм, видна связь антиутопии и полпотовской реальности: дети следили не только за родителями, но и за всеми взрослыми; даже был свой вариант ‘thoughtcrime’ – ‘memory sickness – thinking too much about the life in prerevolutionary Kampuchea’.

На этих кадрах вы видели мысли упомянутого выше журналиста, который всеми силами пытается скрыть, что он владеет европейскими языками. Он мысленно пишет письмо своему другу – американскому журналисту, который заботится о его семье, эвакуированной в США после прихода красных кхмеров (Khmer Rough).

В советское время слово «белоручка» было почти ругательством, т.е. мозоли были в почете. Любили говорить «ты, что, умнее других?» Какая связь с фильмом?

 В фильме есть момент, когда бдительный ребенок лет 10 увидел, как кто-то едет на повозке, в то время как все остальные устало бредут рядом.   

Нарушителя общественной морали казнили. Теперь кадр о мозолях:

После этого дети натянули провинившемуся взрослому полиэтиленовый мешок на голову и задушили. Экономия пуль…

The Khmer Rouge wanted to create a new, perfect country, and destroy everything they thought was bad. They closed all schools and banned education. Almost all educated adult Cambodians were killed. Children were separated from their parents and taught that the Khmer Rouge were their real family. They lost all their rights and were forced to work as soldiers, prison guards, farmers and spies – spying on adults.

В середине последнего сюжета вы заметили, что дети уничтожили посаженные помидоры, так как частная инициатива при коммунизме запрещена (в уголовном кодексе СССР, кстати, была статья «Частное предпринимательство»). Этот кадр – момент, когда бдительная «девушка-комсомолка» думает, что делать с нарушителем запрета:

Режиссер фильма прокомментировал этот кадр примерно следующим образом: тайская девочка (съемки в Таиланде) просто возненавидела взрослых, которые заставили ее играть роль, в которой она не уважает взрослых, поэтому она очень легко сыграла порученную роль. Детям помладше было легче сыграть роль, в которой нужно отказаться от своих родителей:

Жителей любых несвободных стран, как бы ни ненавидели они Запад, объединяет общее – нищета и дефицит элементарных товаров. Поэт И.Губерман назвал СССР так: «Потребительское общество без продуктов потребления». 

Именно Кока-Кола помогла спасти жизни друзей-журналистов:

Журналист Dith Pran знал, где находятся склады напитка, который был не только символом западного потребления, но и предметом вожделения жителей многих стран, живших при авторитарных закрытых режимах. Именно это позволяет разным фирмам зарабатывать огромные прибыли в момент их трансформации:

And Coca-Cola is one of the first to come knocking at the door. CNN’s Andrew Stevens has the story from Myanmar’s commercial capital Yangon. It’s been called the final frontier - the last big Asian country to connect to the global economy. Results reach with a population of 60 million plus and a need for just about everything. In two short years Myanmar has gone from international pariah status to potentially one of the hottest markets in the world and virtually every major consumer brand is now making or has made inroads here. And they don’t get any bigger than coke, one of the first multinationals to be awarded an investment license in Myanmar. -  This is a mark of a 60 plus million consumers just embarking on a journey to join the world community if you like. In a way the same excitement that we had when the Berlin wall came down. - But with great opportunities often come great challenges, and the challenge in Myanmar is infrastructure both transport and particularly power or the lack of power I’m right in the heart of Yangon, the commercial capital of the country, but in shops like this, all along this street they have their own little generator just to supplement the power so the lights stay on and the drinks stay cold. - In a country where most of the business is currently controlled by former military or cronies of military how difficult was it for you to find the right partner? - We had a pretty big list to look at and we were very diligent and we were very happy with our partners.

Итак, вы поняли, что недавняя трансформация политической системы Мьянмы привела к оживлению потребительского рынка. Однако, свободны ли люди в этой стране? Что происходило в ней в последние 20 лет? Нужно ответить на этот вопрос для того, чтобы вам легко можно было бы смотреть новости. А страну эту показывают очень часто:

Myanmar has received a lot of attention in a recent month as its government opens the country to the rest of the world but the reforms are not limited to politics. Our CNN senior international correspondent Dan Rivers introduces us to some young people pushing pop culture right ahead.  - They are sassy, outspoken and hip. And they are hoping to take Asia by storm. No, this isn’t the latest Korean K'Pop band. This is Myanmar girls. A clever play on words with the name of their country Myanmar also known as Burma. We are Myanmar Girls! A five-piece girl band is just one facet of the youth revolution in this previously repressed country that is suddenly opening up to the West. And now there is no censorship for the can I say for the video clips so we can … and lyrics we had to show them our lyrics and if there is political lyrics which is not good which is about the government we couldn’t sing it and a singer is banned and now we can sing. And the censorship didn’t stop with the song words, even their dresses were vetted. What they did not allow is the short ones, low tops and low singlet tops and you wouldn’t just see sexy and the color, the colorful hair, the black lipstick, we just too .. can I say.. western oh yea, they think that it is alien culture. - And the appetite for all things western is insatiable. The Internet is spreading and it’s changing young lives. This is rehearsal for a modeling contest. These young hopefuls have been plugged from obscurity in a country that has been pretty obscured itself. Since 1962 the military has ran Myanmar locking it to a cultural timework exacerbated by western sanctions, which made people here have a little exposure to the outside world. But now the sanctions are gone, young people like Tinco are adopting the latest fashions, hairstyles and music tastes. - I like R&B. While the generals are trading military uniforms for politician suits the young are also changing the way they dress. Suddenly the young people of Myanmar are much freer to express themselves, through music, through dancing and through art and they are loving every minute of it. And across town the market is suddenly posing to a new rhythm it’s Zolas’s heavy metal. There’s is much more freedom now, it’s getting much better. There’s more freedom to write and play whatever we want. Dan Rivers CCN Myanmar.          

Обратите внимание на интересный глагол – ‘to vet’. Его же используют, когда речь идет о проверки человека перед покупкой им оружия (в США) или для того, чтобы пустить его, например, в Европу в качестве беженца.

Послушаем Аун Сан Су Чжи

- I want to run for president and I'm quite frank about it, although I was told by a BBC interviewer that she never came across a politician who had ever admitted to wanting to run for the presidency.                           -  But you’ve just said you do. -   Yes I do. Because let ’s be open about it, there are those who say that I shouldn't say I would like to be president, but then if I pretended that I didn't t want to be president, I wouldn't be honest and I would rather be honest with my people than otherwise.

Что вы думаете о женщине, которую увидели в интервью? Она излучает оптимизм и успех в жизни. Жизнь у нее, однако, легкой не была. Лауреат Нобелевской премии Мира Аун Сан Су Чжи является лидером оппозиции в Бирме. У страны, как ни странно, два названия – привычное для всех Burma (Бирма) и Myanmar (Мьянма). Имя это женщины по-английски произносится несколько иначе из-за «Чжи», которого нет ни в бирманском, ни в китайском языке, но почему-то есть в русском. Соответствующие звуки похожи на «ци», которые англичане переделали в «чи». Кстати, находясь в международном аэропорту, не пытайтесь отыскать в расписании самолеты, вылетающие в Бирму. Только в Мьянму. С другой стороны, прилагательное есть только такое – “Burmese”. За свою долгую жизнь эта легендарная женщина успела побывать в тюрьме и много лет провела под домашним арестом. В начале века лет назад музыкальный канал VH1 выпустил замечательный ролик о ее судьбе и о причинах, по которым антидемократические режимы боятся хрупких женщин. 

In 1990 the Burmese people democratically voted overwhelmingly for Aung San Suu Kyi to lead their country. Burma’s notary regime has never honored the result of the vote of its own people. Why is an army of 400 000 soldiers so afraid of one woman? Is it because she might bring freedom of choice, she might allow freedom of speech or she may develop something as uncontrollable as education. Most of all she might bring freedom, justice and hope. On May 30th 2003 Aung San Suu Kyi was arrested by the army and imprisoned. She is now under house arrest. Also, they have already been in a Burmese prison, know that any day they are liable to be put back there and yet they do not give up. The young people seem too dependent on our organization. To ensure a future for them, for us to know each other and to give them every chance we can that they may be able to make something out of their lives. Support Aung San Suu Kyi. Free Burma. Free your mind!
- There is a house in New Orleans, they call it Rising Sun. And it’s been the ruin of many a poor boy…

Ключевой фразой ролика является та, что изображена на этой фотографии

В 1990 году возглавляемая партия  Аун Сан Су Чжи победила в парламентских выборах, но военная хунта аннулировала их результаты. К моменту проведения выборов Аун Сан Су Чжи уже год находилась под домашним арестом. Военное правительство рассматривало эту смелую женщину как «способную подорвать мир и стабильность общества». Ее имя стало символом борьбы за свободу далеко за пределами Бирмы. Однако, кумиры не вечны: бирманская хунта не только отпустила нашу героиню из-под домашнего ареста, разрешив участвовать в управлении государством, но запретив избираться на пост президента. Придумали для этого формальное обоснование: нельзя участвовать в выборах, имея детей с чужим (британским) гражданством.

Американский философ Ф.Фукуяма в своей книге «Конец истории и последний человек» писал, что мир, лишенный мест, где царит бесправие и нищета, может привести к деградации личности тех, кто живет в мире, в котором победили идеалы либеральной демократии. История движется до тех пор, пока есть страны, в которых эти идеалы не лежат в основе структуры и функционирования государства. «Последний человек», или, согласно Ф.Ницше, «человек без груди» - это человек, живущий в гармоничном обществе, в котором нет необходимости самоутверждения в борьбе за идеалы. Согласно Фукуяме, должны быть страны, подобные Бирме – для того, чтобы американец мог задуматься о несправедливости жизни в такой стране и, возможно, поехать сражаться на стороне угнетенных. «Рэмбо» - С. Сталлоне - выпустил свой последний фильм в этом стиле, который был тут же запрещен в Бирме. Он и есть этот средний американец по Фукуяме

Critics may have scoffed at the latest chapter in the Rambo saga but the film is a big hit with everyday Burmese and Karen freedom fighters. In Karen state troops have become huge fans of Rambo saying Stallone’s success in the movie has spurred on the will to beat the military junta. It is a good movie for Karen people and the Karen fighters also like it, they said they could get some experience from the film and it also raises their confidence and their bravery which could encourage them to fight against the Burmese junta. So, we get show. We are sill pushing for the change inside Burma. And if we want every attention we deserve from the outside world, including Singapore and ASEAN. Please don’t forget us, please help us, please support our cause for change and democracy in Burma. 

Как произносится слово ‘junta’? По-разному:

Еще это слово произносят так же, как это делается в русском языке – хунта.

Помимо борьбы за демократические выборы есть еще один аспект, который смешал все карты по поводу личности нашей героини, которую многие хотят лишить Нобелевской премии за бездействие, в то время как буддийские монахи и армия творят геноцид по отношению к национальным меньшинствам:

Critics of Suu Kyi say she should be strict of her Nobel Peace Prize for failing to end the crackdown. 
Human Rights Watch says all leaders at that summit must drop their "do-nothing approach" to atrocities and take a stand. We‘re learning more about the horrors. Rohingya are facing more than 6 hundred thousand of them have fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh since august. Survives have shared stories of mass murder, rapes and children being burned alive. Well, now in what is an exclusive report, CNN’s Cloris Award gives us a rare looking to the lives of these persecuted people. 
It's just a few hundred yards to safety. But it doesn't take long to see that something has gone 
 
very wrong.  A woman's limp body is rushed through the no man's land between Bangladesh and Myanmar as anxious families wait to see what has happened.
 
On this day, it is a husband and wife. The crowd says they were shot dead as they tried to leave Myanmar. 
 
There are among more than 600,000 Rohingya Muslims who are flooded this border to escape what the United Nations has called a textbook example of ethnic cleansing. 
 
Each, it seems, has a tale more harrowing than the next. Noor al-Haq says he fled a brutal massacre in his village of Tula Toli. My sons and daughters were shot on Thursday. I can't find them, he says. There's no one left. Haq claims local officials told residents it was safe to remain in the village. But the days later, the Myanmar military poured in and carried out a bloodbath.
 
Please someone kill me, he cries. This is God's will. Others who escaped Tula Toli tell a similar story. Ray Hanna says the soldiers rounded them up on the riverbank and separated the men from the women.
 
We couldn't escape. Many children were shot and they fell on their faces, she recalls. Those lying on the ground were picked up, chopped and later they were thrown into the river.
 
Cell phone footage given to CNN by Tula Toli residents appears to show the bodies of three children wash up on the shore as witnesses cry to God for mercy.
 
CNN cannot confirm the authenticity of the video or verify the many accounts. Access to Rakhine State is heavily restricted. But we wanted to find out more about what happened in Tula Toli.
 
So, we traveled to a sprawling refugee camp along the border and met 30- year-old Mumtaz. She says that Burmese soldiers raped her before setting the house alight with her inside.
 
But the burns that cover her body only hint at the horror she survived.
 Describe to me what happened to you. What did you see with your own eyes exactly? 
 
My boy was just behind me and they hit him with a wooden stick and he collapsed to the ground dead. His head was split open, she says. Then they took my other son from my lap and threw him into the fire.
 
She managed to escape with her seven-year-old daughter Razia. All three of her sons were killed. 
 
"Oh, God," she cries, "why didn't you take me?" But for the survivors of Tula Toli, there is no justice in this world. 

But some Buddhists monks preach that they pose an existential threat to the country. We are worried that they will explode our ethnic heritage, cultural buildings, religious monuments and our brethren when they carry out suicide bombings. Nowhere is this fear of Muslims more acute than in Rakhine State where a deadly attack by Rohingya Muslim militants against security forces last august triggered a campaign of reprisals. More than 600 000 Rohingya Muslims have since been driven from their homes across the border to neighboring Bangladesh. Refugees accused the military of torturing their villages, mass rape and murder. Myanmar says it’s fighting against a terrorist insurgency and denies deliberately attacking civilians. The US and the United Nations call it ethnic cleansing. This little public sympathy in Myanmar for the Rohingya. For decades authorities labeled them illegal immigrants and denied them citizenship. If there is going to be a repatriation program, implementation will be key. Will traumatized people dare to go back to their home villages some of which have been burned, will any of them have any documentation left to prove that they once lived in Myanmar? And the agreement it’s not clear whether it will get to the crux of the crisis which is that historically the Myanmar government refuses to recognize the citizenship, the citizen right of this community of Rohingya Muslims denying them access to healthcare, education and even the right to travel freely within the borders. The political climate in Myanmar is toxic.

Теперь вы «в теме».

История, музыка и кинематограф очень тесно переплетены. Язык – это всего лишь инструмент и одновременно материал, который связывает элементы этого информационного пространства. Одна из задач пройденного вами курса – помощь в навигации в этом пространстве – почти решена.  Посмотрите сюжет о новой столице Бирмы – Нейпьидо (Naypyidaw), построенной военной хунтой в 2005 году для того, чтобы быть подальше от бывшей столицы (Янгон), населенной миллионами не очень довольных режимом людей. Суеверные военные чиновники, подчиняясь советам астрологов, в 11 часов утра 11 ноября 2005 года перевезли имущество 11 министерств в поселок, который в 2006 году был объявлен новой столицей Бирмы. Имущество перевозили на 1100 грузовиках. Название переводится как «Обитель королей». Короли в погонах и их жены стали счастливыми обитателями искусственного городка. О каком «шоу» упомянул корреспондент в самом начале сюжете, говоря об отеле? Президент Трумэн тут не причем. Намек был на фильм “Truman Show”, главный герой которого не подозревал, что с самого детства живет в искусственно созданном для съемок рекламы и реалити-шоу городке под гигантским куполом. Тележурналист использовал этот образ для того, чтобы подчеркнуть искусственность Нейпьидо. 

We could only spend a few hours in the largest city Yangon before we had to drive five hours north to the new capital Naypyidaw. It’s Friday morning and we’ve just spent the night at this rather Truman Show esque hotel which has got a series of little small houses here. It’s perfectly comfortable nothing wrong with it. But the whole thing is only being built probably through four years ago.  Last time we were here there wasn’t even this shopping center which is now sprain up and this whole city of Naypyidaw has just been sort of created from nothing out in the bush in the middle of northern Burma. And we gonna go and have a look around the city before today’s press conference. 
 
Traffic is light here the city is still mostly populated with civil servants and senior military officers. There are a few shopping malls for the families of the elite. There is choice a luxury, most ordinary citizens can only dream about. This is the new parliament that the military junta is still building ahead of promised elections later this year. It’s about its far removed from the electorate as it's possible to get.   
 Good Morning! Morning! Good Morning! Oh in case I don’t see you good afternoon! Good evening and good night! Haha Morning Trumen, Morning Spansor! Hey Pluto! Ohh no no no get down. - He won’t hurt you.  -Get down. I know. It’s just me. Come on Pluto!  

Сейчас западные СМИ больше не произносят слово «хунта». Последний раз оно активно использовалось при описании жестокого подавления волнений среди буддийских монахов в 2007 году. В 2004 и 2008 годах Бирма также попадает в новости, так как правительство саботировало международную помощь пострадавшим от цунами и циклона, соответственно. В помощи нуждались десятки тысяч человек, но закрытость страны не позволяла оперативно выдать визы добровольцам, спешащим на помощь. Медленно пропускалась и гуманитарная помощь.

Сегодня про «хунту» больше не говорят. Теперь это «военные в правительстве». В том правительстве, которое было сформировано на полудемократических принципах. Под давлением международной общественности, а также исходя из внутренней политической целесообразности, военные Бирмы освободили Аун Сан Су Чжи и позволили ей заниматься политикой. Некоторые ее даже обвиняют в сотрудничестве с теми, кто угнетал народ в течение десятилетий, обвиняют в том, что она стала “poster girl for the army”. На что она отвечает, что это ей льстит, так как в ее возрасте “very flattering to be seen as a poster girl for anything at this time of life”. Эти слова произнесены тогда, когда ей было уже 67 лет… Удивительная вещь – лингвистика. В полном соответствии с логикой романа «1984» вчерашние враги становятся союзниками, и все должны забыть о прошлом. В трансформации «хунты» к «военным» не так много мерзости, так как правители Бирмы сделали много конкретных шагов на пути демократизации страны, ее открытости для международных контактов и инвестиций. Гораздо противнее, когда происходит эволюция от «бандитов и сепаратистов» через «полевые командиры» к «руководству республики». При этом эволюции в смысле свободы – никакой (Чечня).

Итак, в 2018 году тема все еще звучит в новостях:

These scenes are causing a global impact. An exodus of Rakhine Muslim refugees, fleeing security operations by the armed forces of Burma or Myanmar. Today the head of the UN criticized that government’s offensive and urged the grunting of full human rights to the Rakhine. And the crisis is doing nothing for the international reputation of Aung San Suu Kyi either. Once imprisoned in a symbol of the country’s union for democracy she has since 2015 been a leading member of the government. Now she is denouncing the press for reporting the Rakhine mission making references to fake news and an iceberg of misinformation. During the long years of house arrest Aung was champion by leaders the world over. In fact, I very often thought I’m quite free I don’t know why people say I’m not free – I’m free because I was free up there.
After her release 5 years ago, she campaigned for democracy and human rights. The believe and spiritual freedom does not have to mean an indifference to the practical need for the basic rights and freedoms that are generally seen as necessary that human beings may live like human beings. A basic human right which I value highly is freedom from fear. But Aung is no Nelson Mandela. She is very much an insider, her father having founded modern Burma and belonged to its military elite. And in the current confrontation between the army and the Muslim minority she stands against militancy and with the mainstream. Well I’ve observed that she hasn’t abided by her own values and values which amazes such a great person the values which are important. She is there, she is queen B, she’s got the power, she’s got the following, she’s where she wants to be, she is not particularly bold ?? as far as I can tell about what the outside world thinks anymore. 
Perfectively remaining silent as we watch in other Srebrenica and Ruanda unfold before our eyes.

Из-за ограниченности во времени мы решили не останавливаться на геноциде в Боснии (вы слышали в сюжете упоминание о Srebrenica). В последнем сюжете прозвучало также сравнение событий в Мьянме с геноцидом в Руанде. Начнем разговор об этой стране с фильма Hotel Rwanda

На этом видео вы видите беспомощных солдат ООН во время кризиса в Руанде. Прочтите о его причинах. Оказывается, все произошло от того, что выращивать скот более выгодно, чем заниматься земледелием.

The Rwandan genocide was a systematic campaign by the Hutu ethnic majority aimed at wiping out each and every member of the minority Tutsi group. The Hutu-controlled government and allied militias slaughtered between 800,000 and one million Tutsis before a Tutsi rebel group overthrew them. Over 100,000 Hutus were also killed, including both moderate Hutus killed by Hutu extremists and those killed by Tutsis in so-called "revenge killings."

The genocide was set into motion by the death of Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana. On April 6th, 1994, Habyarimana's plane was shot down by a missile of unknown origin. Government-aligned forces used (Hutu) Habyarimana's death as an excuse to begin a campaign of slaughter they had been planning for some time, and the genocide began on April 7th. It went on for about 100 days.

The split between Hutus and Tutsis arose not as a result of religious or cultural differences, but economic ones. "Hutus" were people who farmed crops, while "Tutsis" were people who tended livestock. Most Rwandans were Hutus. Gradually, these class divisions became seen as ethnic designations. Because cattle were more valuable than crops, the minority Tutsis became the local elite. By the time Belgium took over the land in 1917 from Germany (who took it in 1884), an ethnic Tutsi elite had been the ruling monarchy for quite some time. German and Belgian rule made the dividing lines between the groups sharper. This "divide and conquer" strategy meant supporting the Tutsi monarchy and requiring that all local chiefs be Tutsis, turning the Tutsis into symbols of colonial rule for the Hutu majority.

Лучше, конечно, один раз увидеть

In the middle of the genocide of Bosnia. Genocide was being committed in Africa in Rwanda. That the massacre of Tutsis was preplanned by the Hutu. In 3 months in 1994 nearly 1 million people were killed, killed by machettes, killed by clogs, killed by people and their bare hands. The country is littered with mass graves, its churches still filled with women and children who’d sought shelter and found only death. It was Hutus on the rampage against moderate Hutus and Tutsis. Survives of the genocide many who lost entire families remain bitter at international indifference but determined that those who planned and carried out the massacres must be punished. Genocide has left this country deeply scared upcoming trials are certain to open the wounds but officials here see no other way unless those who planned and carried out the genocide are punished, they warn that the massacres that were seen across these hills last year could be repeated. After the Hutus had rampaged through the Tutsi villages the Tutsi army came from exile in Uganda and started to fight back and Hutus almost in mass fled across the border from Rwanda into Zaire. That in itself was a scene of biblical disaster colures spread like wild fire. Eventually peace keepers and others around the world came with heavy bulldozer to dig mass graves. It was a very brutal and dehumanizing thing to witness. The world failed in Rwanda and the failure to give that country the attention that it deserved cost nearly a million lives. 

The world failed in Rwanda – ключевая фраза сюжета. Речь, конечно, о Западе (world).

Следующее видео возвращает нас к теме безразличия к страданию других людей в гротескной форме (свобода прессы):

Again, there was great reluctance on the part of many defense officials to have any US involvement. Marley (US advisor) also proposed that Pentagon begin jamming the Rwandan State Radio that was promoting the Killing. - One lawyer from the Pentagon made the argument that that would be contrary to the US Constitutional protection of freedom of the press, freedom of speech. - By mid-May an estimated 500000 people have been murdered in Rwanda. It seemed there would be no end to the killing. By the 11th of April four days after the genocide began the Red Cross was estimating that tens of thousands had already been killed in Rwanda. In the first days of the killing France, Belgium and Italy - all sent troops to Rwanda. But they were under national rather than UN command. They've been sent not to stop the killing, but to rescue their own citizens like the white staff at Kigali psychiatric hospital. But the hospital had become a makeshift refuge where Tootsie's were hiding from the killers in the surrounding fields. - They came just to ask for help. And then when they came nearer they put themselves on their knees. They put their hands in the air: "Please, take us away, take us with you!" One woman started to speak and started to explain why they were afraid and what was happening to them. And she started begging us to take her and the others with us. She was speaking to me, a woman to a woman, saying: "I'm afraid there are those mad men, I'm afraid that they will rape me". It was very hard to say "I cannot help you". It was not talking to hundreds of people. I was talking to one woman. And that's very hard to say, but it's like that I couldn't do anything. And they just said: "We will be killed. Please, take us with you. Bring us to other place, but don't leave us here". - Back at the airport French soldiers were escorting their citizens to safety along with French diplomats and the embassy dog. They did not evacuate the Embassy Tootsie's staff who were later murdered. - Before his speech to government officials President Clinton had a private audience with a few survivors of the genocide and listened silently to their horrifying stories. Afterward he presented the president of Rwanda with a plaque honoring the victims of genocide. President Clinton would spend just three and a half hours in Kigali. He never left the airport and the engines of 'Air Force One' never shut down.
We talk about Rwanda as a failure of US policy, a failure to intervene, a failure to recognize what was going on and a failure to take action to stop genocide. But if you look at the Clinton administration's approach to it throughout the entire period - what you really see is that it was actually a success of a policy not to intervene. It wasn’t a failure to act. The decision was not to act and at that they succeeded greatly. I think that anybody who still believes that the world will not let it happen again, who believes the words "never again" is deluding themselves. Dangerously.

Особую роль играет в этом эпизоде посольская собака…

Посмотрите трейлер к фильму Hotel Rwanda

My name is Paul Rusesabagina I am the host manager of the most luxurious hotel in the capital of Rwanda. A place that my family and I happily called our home until the day everything changed. Daddy, there are soldiers on the street. They are killing everyone, it’s a massacre, the United Nations are here -no. We are here as peacekeepers not as peacemakers. We’ve got trouble at the gates. This is a four-star hotel, not a refugee camp. I have no means to protect these people. When a country descended into madness. They are killing Tutsi children to wipe up the next generation. And the world turned its back. How can I not intervene? Hundreds of thousands are dying. If people see this they’ll say OMG, it’s horrible. And they’re go and eat their dinners. One man had to make a choice. All the fighters are leaving even the UN soldiers. All the superpowers everything you believed in Paul they’re not gonna stop this slaughter. We have been abandoned. There will be no rescue we can only save ourselves. United Artists presents the true story of a man who fought impossible odds.  I cannot leave these people to die to save everyone he could. They said you let the massacres -you will tell them the truth -I will tell them nothing unless you help me.  And created a place - Go inside the hotel- where hope survived. You are a good man Paul.  We need to help one another, that is the only thing that is keeping us alive. Hotel Rwanda. 

Главный герой – управляющий гостиницей – реальный человек, который спас от ужасной смерти около тысячи человек. Смерть могла выглядеть так: жертве удается найти деньги и купить пулю, чтобы быть ей застреленной – иначе в течение нескольких дней отрезались конечности…

Вот этот герой, который спас так много людей

If I happen to live and these people are killed I'll never be a free man in my life, I'll never be free from my own conscience.

Попробуйте теперь самостоятельно определить год выхода этого сюжета ВВС

The most harrowing of stories can sometimes make the most compelling of dramas. 10 years after the Rwandan genocide comes a film based on the experience of one heroic individual caught up in the frenzy of mass killing

В следующих видео вы услышите мнение Клинтона о трагедии в Руанде и слова (гораздо позднее) Буша о том, что он не боится за то, что в Дарфуре (Ю.Судан) может произойти то же самое:

You list in the book a number of triumphs and a number of fails but if there was one incident that you could rewrite or handle differently. What was that one be? Well, if I could I would .. I'd like to mention one at home one abroad. I wish I had moved in Rwanda quickly, I wish I'd gone in there quicker not just waiting until the camps were set up. We might have been able to save probably not even half those who were lost but still a large number of people. I really regret that. I carry a lot about Africa. - I mentioned the genocide thing also because your predecessor the president Clinton said that the one thing one of the key things that keeps him up at night is that he didn't do enough to stop the killing there. Is it possible that Darfur might become your Rwanda? No, I don't think so, I hope certainly help not, I mean Rwanda was .. you know.. I think 900 000 people in a very quick period of time of just ?? self-slaughter. You know I appreciate President Clinton's compassion and concern. 

В этом интервью Буш сказал, что он едет в Пекин на Олимпийские игры и не собирается их бойкотировать, как Спилберг из-за того, что Китай никак не влияет на власти Судана по прекращению геноцида в Дарфуре.

Тень трагедии висит над страной, но появляется поколение, которое стремится все забыть и строить новую жизнь:

Close to a million people murdered in the genocide including members of my family. The population is young growing rapidly. Kigali is my city. 

В Германии вы можете попасть в тюрьму, публично поставив под сомнение Holocaust. В Турции вы попадете за решетку за утверждение о том, что имел место геноцид армян:

During the World War 1 the Ottoman Empire carried out what most international experts and historians have concluded was one of the largest genocides in the world’s history. Slaughtering huge portions of its minority Armenian population. In all, over one million Armenians were put to death. To this day Turkey denies the genocidal intent of this mass murders. My sense is that Armenians are suffering from what I would call incomplete mourning and they can’t complete that mourning process until their tragedy, their wounds are recognized by the descenders of the people who perpetrated them. 

В заключение еще раз вернемся к фильму Beyond Borders. Очень трудно вызвать интерес к топику «демократия», но для тех, кто смог дойти до этого модуля, откроем секрет:  очень часто по телевидению показывают голодающих чернокожих детей – сцены, мало кого оставляющие равнодушными (особенно Fair Sex). Мысль, которая приходит автоматически: “Почему не помогает тот мир, который взял на себя право считать себя цивилизованным, что неразрывно связано с гуманизмом”? Ответ очень прост: таким странам почти невозможно помогать, так как тотальная коррупция в условиях отсутствия демократии и того, что принято называть “accountable governments”, приводит к разворовыванию гуманитарной помощи. Анжелина Джоли в фильме “Beyond borders” играет роль работника ООН, которая занята организацией гуманитарной помощи в разных уголках света. 

Отсутствие, правда, интереса к истории приводит к тому, что часть, посвященная приключениям главной героини фильма в Кампучии, непонятна 99% зрительской аудитории (конфликт вьетнамцев и красных кхмеров). Но вы теперь в этом 1%! Кстати, выше был обещан альбом Майкла Олдфилда, посвященный трагедии в Кампучии. Вот он

Есть интересный фильм Four Feathers, который как бы подытоживает этот невероятно затянувшийся модуль.  

Gentlemen. I have some news. An army of Muhammad fanatics under the command of their self-proclaimed messiah, the Mahdi has attacked a British fortress in the Sudan. Our forces there fought a heroic but, in the end, hopeless, rearguard action. They were slaughtered to a man. As a result of these hostilities several regiments, including the Royal Cumbrians will be shipping out to the Sudan within the week. Congratulations to you all. This government has finally seen fit to send its soldiers to war. Finally, we're off. Gentlemen. God has endowed the British race with a worldwide empire that they may execute His sovereign purpose in the world. The victories you will have over the heathen are the victories of the nobler soul in man. -God save the queen. -God save the queen! All together! This is what nerves do to grown men. If we're going to war, I wish we just get on with it. Do you ever think about what it's going to be like when we get there? -All the time. -Don't you? I sometimes wonder what a godforsaken desert in the middle of nowhere has to do with Her Majesty the queen. -What's going on? What happened? -Aren't you afraid you won't come back?

Главная фраза ‘I sometimes wonder what a godforsaken desert in the middle of nowhere has to do with Her Majesty the queen’ понимайте теперь в расширенном смысле. Ищите сами баланс между невмешательством в дела дальних территорий и живущих в них людей и ответственностью цивилизованных стран за происходящее на планете. Здесь нет очевидных утверждений. Кто-то считает, что нельзя вводить войска на чужие территории, но вы видели, что это не всегда так. Кто-то считает, что нужно помогать, но только продовольствием и медикаментами. По поводу продовольствия вы уже поняли… Теперь немного о медицине, тем более, что впереди еще модуль о болезнях.

I remember when I was with Special Forces...Seems a thousand centuries ago...We went into a camp to inoculate the children. We left the camp after we had inoculated the children for Polio, and this old man came running after us and he was crying. He couldn't see. We went back there and they had come and hacked off every inoculated arm. There they were in a pile...A pile of little arms. And I remember...I...I...I cried...I wept like some grandmother. I wanted to tear my teeth out. I didn't know what I wanted to do. And I want to remember it. I never want to forget it. I never want to forget. And then I realized...like I was shot...Like I was shot with a diamond...a diamond bullet right through my forehead...And I thought: My God...the genius of that. The genius. The will to do that. Perfect, genuine, complete, crystalline, pure. And then I realized they were stronger than we. 

Сами разберитесь в разнице между глаголами ‘to vaccinate’ и ‘to inoculate’. Polio – это «полиомиелит». Так реагируют необразованные люди на прививки:

Pakistan one of the few remaining places in the world where Polio is still crippling and killing hundreds of people. The Vaccine workers there are coming under attack and the death throe was raising so some A groups have now suspended work on Polio radication campaings inside Pakistan. 

Мы закончим этот модуль, возвратившись к вопросу о переходных процессах в Бирме только потому, что в нем обозначена более общая тема – вера в трансформационные процессы, которые улучшают мир, в котором мы живем. 

I suppose that the trouble is that the Burmese ruling military junta has not in the past proved very susceptible to international pressure. And it has been a lot of pressure on them. Do you think there is any reason at all to be optimistic about change in Burma? My generation saw the Berlin wall came down, Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa. Peace in Northern Ireland. Black America elected the president of the United States.

Если вы внимательно прошли наш курс, то не смогли не заметить связь с теорией Фукуямы о движении человечества к лучшим формам устройства общества. Мы же переходим еще к одной исторической реалии, имеющей огромное политическое и символическое значение – построению и слому Берлинской стены и системы, которая ее возвела.

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.