THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
Task 1 Study the vocabulary below and remember the following definitions:
package(-)tour a tourist voucher comprising full fare, accommodation, catering, excursions etc.;
leisure time or opportunity for ease, relaxation, etc.;
activity any specific deed, action, occupation, etc. E.g. recreational activities;
1) external conditions or surroundings, especially those in which people live or work; 2) ecology the external surroundings in which a plant or animal lives, which tend to influence its development and behavior;
consecutive following one another without interruption; successive;
recreation 1) refreshment of health or spirits by relaxation and enjoyment;
2) an activity or pastime that promotes this;
exceed to go beyond the limit or bounds;
purchaser a person who buys; buyer or consumer (customer);
catering the food, provided at a function by a person (a caterer) who provides food for social events;
retailing the sale of goods individually or in small quantities to consumers;
entertainment an act that entertains; amusement;
resident a person who lives permanently (resides) in a place; permanent residency refers to a person's visa status: the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country despite not having citizenship. A person with such status is known as a permanent resident. In Russia it is called “Vid na zhitelstvo”;
cruise ship/ liner a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience;
accommodation a place, where a traveler can get a bed and food while on a trip; e.g. hotels, motels, inns, camping grounds, hostels etc.
resort a place which many people go to for recreation, rest, etc.
venue any place where an organized gathering, such as a rock concert or public meeting, is held;
Tourism is a relatively new phenomenon in the world. Tourism began with the building of the railroads in the 19th century. In fact, the word tourism was used by 1811.
Cox & Kings is the oldest established travel company in the world. It was the first official travel company to be established in 1758. Cox & Kings thrives as an independent tour company with offices in the United Kingdom, India, the United States and Japan. The first package-tour was arranged by Thomas Cook in England in 1841. The service included a journey of 20 miles by train, tea, buns and a brass band. The price of the tour was a mere 1 shilling! Thomas Cook&Sons has now remained one of the prominent names in the tourist industry.
Nowadays tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. The internationally agreed definition of tourism says that: Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. In other words, “tourism” is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.
Despite tourism has been one of the fastest growing industries (the growth rate of tourism has generally exceeded the growth rate for the worldwide economy), defining the tourist industry is difficult. It is not an industry that is grouped into a single heading within the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). The defining feature of tourism is not the product, but the purchaser, the ’tourist’. Most definitions concentrate on the services that a number of different industries, such as the travel industry; hotels and catering; retailing and entertainment provide to tourists.
If defining the tourist industry is so complicated, then the classification of tourism is pretty simple. Thus, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in 1994, in its “Recommendations on Tourism Statistics”. They are:
• Domestic tourism, which involves residents of the given country traveling only within this country;
• Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country;
• Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.
The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the three basic forms of tourism:
• Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound tourism;
• National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism;
• International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism.
Tourism is vital for many countries, such as the U.A.E, Egypt, Greece and Thailand, and many island nations, such as the Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism.
An aerial view of Male, the capital city of Maldives, an island nation:
These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxis, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, various music venues and the theatre.