00-33.2 Brexit (II)

Brexit

by

Brexit (II)

Вы частично ознакомились с причинами Brexit и даже немного коснулись вопросов бизнеса. В этом модуле мы будем «копать» глубже, что даст вам возможность понять, как простых людей, так и политиков и бизнесменов. Brexit и его задержка затрагивает многие аспекты жизни простых граждан – от проблем с доставкой свежих листьев салата из Франции и медикаментов со всего EU до ущемленного чувства собственного достоинства. Проблемы с доставкой – это следствие неизбежных задержек оформления товаров при пересечении границы с EU, куда UK более входить не будет. Они настолько могут оказаться серьезными, что правительство рассматривало возможность пустить через Ла-Манш специальный паром для этой цели – чтобы грузовики с лекарствами не стояли в одной очереди с грузовиками с продуктами. И, конечно же, мы будем учить слова и фразы. Brexit родил новое слово, которое вы уже встретили в первом модуле (flextension) и юмор по поводу канавы с мертвым Б.Джонсоном:

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson might not be dead in a ditch, but his pledge to deliver Brexit on Halloween is most definitely dead.  The EU says it will grant Britain another extension until the end of January 2020, or flextension.

Термин flextension  означает, что UK может выйти из EU и раньше этого срока. Но вся проблема в том, на каких условиях этот выход осуществить. Есть еще так называемый BACKSTOP:

To understand the backstop, you have to understand the current position and where it's going forward. This is the current position. The United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, the Irish Republic, one single market with goods and services flowing between them freely. The issue is after the U.K. leaves the E.U., well, then, it will be two countries in two different regulatory regimes, and by rights, there should be a hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic. But they are against that. It's not in the Good Friday Agreement, and the fear is that, if you go back to a hard border, on the Island of Ireland, well, when, there's a real risk of going back to violence. So there is a backstop that's designed to stop it, and the backstop says as follows: if they don't reach agreement in the next two years, if, then Northern Ireland becomes closely allied to the south in a Customs Union that includes the whole lot. But that, because these two will be more closely aligned, would create an artificial border between the Great Britain and Northern Ireland. And that, according to British politicians, is absolutely unacceptable. They will not go for it. And so the Northern Ireland question has become the intractable issue. The backstop says, if it's enforced, the north and the south will be aligned in a massive Customs Union. Can they renegotiate? European leaders say there's no going back to the negotiating table. Jean-Claude Juncker and Donald Tusk have been remarkably consistent over the past months, not open to negotiation. The only deal possible. The only way to ensure an orderly withdraw and no room whatsoever for another deal. – So with the backstop in mind, the next stop on Theresa May's trip is to Dublin, Ireland. – The Irish are feeling frustration and even some pity about the British and their Brexit problems. CNN's Diplomatic Editor Nick Robertson shows us the view from Dublin. – Don't be afraid, the last words of legendary Irish poet, Seamus Heaney. They have a prophetic feel in Dublin today. Brexit is looming, and there's a lot at stake for Ireland. At the nearby pub, the weekly restock finished. Tell me, what do you think about Brexit? - Disaster.

Вы встретили ‘by rights’ – это «по праву», «по справедливости». Там еще было ‘intractable  issue’: 

Слово restock чаще всего используется в качестве глагола – «пополнить», но в этом сюжете очевидно, что речь о существительном. Понять легче, чем перевести. Как всегда.

Половина планеты изучает английский язык не случайно. Что-то было в культуре, языке и мироощущении англосаксов такое, что привело к этой ситуации. Именно поэтому мы и остановились на Brexit – понять, что заставило британцев в определенном смысле отгородиться от мира, причем от не самой худшей его части. В предыдущем модуле были рассмотрены страны группы PIIGS (GIPSI). Россиянам, которые в силу исторических обстоятельств не принимают участия в политических процессах, трудно понять простой факт: британские политики не придумали Brexit. Страсти по нахождению в EU кипели на уровне простых граждан – от бизнесменов до парикмахеров (увидите ниже). Страсти нужно понимать, если мы учим язык людей, которые их испытывают.  Небольшой фрагмент из фильма об упомянутых выше парикмахерах, бизнесменах и политиках:

This is your Brexit: isn’t about trading arrangements. It’s about the heart and soul of Britain. Where are we going and who we want to be? – All Boris is doing is putting lipstick on a pig. 

Мы не будем останавливаться на интересной идиоме с ‘lipstick’, но вам это сделать настоятельно рекомендуем. Во второй половине этого модуля о ней рассказывается очень подробно.  https://www.englishpatient.org/share/modules/ejapg8XSaJ

Нужно ли изучающим английский знать слово thorn (шип, колючка)? Или это только ботаникам интересно? Нужно, конечно! Как и в русском языке, в английском языке есть «острые темы»:

This will remain one of the many thorny issues between Israelis and Palestinians.

Может, следовательно, быть и thorniest issue. В нашем случае это ‘No Deal Brexit’ - выход UK из EU без всякого соглашения, что во многих случая уничтожит мелкий и средний бизнес из-за тарифов. 

Brexit's thorniest issue is the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Right now, dairy farms ship fresh milk across the border without any problem. But that could all change if there is a No Deal Brexit. CNN's Nick Robertson has our story. — From sea, over mountains, more than 300 miles along rivers, slicing through towns. The border between Northern Ireland and its southern neighbor, the Republic of Ireland, cuts the island with a surgeon's precision and a drunk's sense of direction. It is an historic scar, and more recently, a symbol of peace. But it's fast becoming the Badlands of Brexit, where real lives are colliding with bitter EU-UK. negotiations. And one of Northern Ireland's biggest industries —  agriculture is collateral damage. Andrew Little is 26, milked his first cow when he was 10. Inherited the tiny farm not far from the border from his father, has grown it to 100 cows, scrapes a living selling milk south the border. A No Deal Brexit and the cross-border tariffs that would follow would crush him.

С лингвистической точки зрения интересна идиома ‘to scrape a living’: to only just earn enough money to provide yourself with food, clothing, and a place to live. Пример: He settled in Paris, where he scraped a living writing short stories and magazine articles.

Кроме того, нужно знать, что такое ‘collateral damage’. Для начала разберемся со словом ‘collateral’:

Теперь с ‘collateral damage’, но не с точки зрения горькой иронии тележурналиста:

Закрепим эту горькую иронию на более жестком примере:

Sometimes military briefs on TV talk about ‘collateral damage’. They lived near military base and the base was attacked. And this is what collateral damage actually means. That means these kinds of wounds, means a family destroyed, a pregnant woman killed and this man left here doing his best… 

Проблемы бизнесменов по трагизму, конечно, меньше, но они чреваты социальным взрывом и возможными конфликтами на границе «ирландий».

Like you say: if you’re a businessman either side of the border in Northern Ireland you could be getting very, very worried about what might happen over the next couple of months.   

Следующий сюжет CNN снят еще до референдума. Смотрите его только в том случае, если вам хочется понять настроения бизнесменов задолго до выхода UK из EU:

With a month ago before the UK faces one of its biggest decisions in a generation: whether to stay or leave the European Union. The polls seem to remain very close. Most British businesses appear to be leaning towards remaining. What a EU membership means to UK business? – Assembled in Britain by a German company and destined for trains all over the world, these signal boxes are the embodiment of what the E.U. means to business: unfettered access to the largest single trading market anywhere on the planet. – The first thing is that quite simply, we have access to a huge market, the biggest in the world, 500 million people. That helps our business here in the U.K. The second is this: we want to have influence from the U.K. through the European Union to make sure that the standards and the regulations that is set for our manufacturing here suits us and works for us. And the third is really, really crucial. And that issue is that we want to participate in European-wide research programs that help us set what future interest industries are going to be. With 14,000 staff across 13 factories like these, Siemens is one of the largest global firms operating inside the U.K. And when it comes to its views on Europe, turns out it's not alone. Of those polled, 78 % of international companies said they believed a so-called Brexit would be bad for business, putting into jeopardy the almost $40 billion worth of foreign direct investment that flows into the country each year. And Siemens views also echo those of big British business, too. A recent survey showed that CEOs of 93 % of U.K.-listed firms reckoned that the U.K. was better off remaining inside the E.U. But smaller industry, it seems, sees more value in independence, with 42 % of its bosses saying that they would vote to leave. Take Britain's oldest salmon curers, Almond & Sons, which export 90 % of their fish to non-E.U. markets but still have to contend with cumbersome rules and regulations. We face a huge amount of red tape and bureaucracy, and one of the ridiculous things we had to do last year was spend thousands upon thousands of pounds printing new packaging for smoked salmon so that it had a warning sign printed on the back saying, "contains fish". From the production line to the polling booth, bosses of business big and small may not see eye to eye when it comes to the E.U. But the one thing they do want is clarity. They'll  get that after June the 23rd.     

Для тех, кто не осилил этот сюжет, отметим, что там есть фраза о бюрократических глупостях Европейского Союза: бизнес потратил огромные деньги, чтобы иметь право продавать свою продукцию непременно  printing new packaging for smoked salmon so that it had a warning sign printed on the back saying, "contains  fish". Эти процедуры не только невыгодны, но и унизительны. Поэтому появились такие картинки:

RED TAPE – бюрократизм. Красной лентой, которой когда-то бюрократы обвязывали пачки документов.

Британцы на референдуме примерно поровну разделились на ‘leavers’ и ‘remainers’. Значит, этому должно быть объяснения. Слушаем:

But I hope Mr. Speaker that this is the moment when we can finally achieve that resolution and reconcile the instincts that compete within us. (hear!) Many times in the last 30 years, I’ve heard our European friends’ remark that this country is half-hearted in its EU membership and it is true that we in the UK have often been a back marker opting out of the single currency, not taking part in Schengen, very often trying to block some collective ambition.  

Half-hearted = done without enthusiasm or effort

Back marker (backmarker) = the person, horse, etc. who is in last position in a race.

But if we have been skeptical, and if we have been anxious about the remoteness of the bureaucracy, if we have been dubious about the rhetoric of union and integration, If we have been half-hearted Europeans  then it follows logically that with part of our hearts, with half our hearts, we feel something else, a sense of love and respect for European culture and civilisation of which we are a part(Hear!); a desire to cooperate with our friends and partners in everything, creatively, artistically, intellectually. A sense of our shared destiny and a deep understanding of the eternal need, especially after the horrors of the last century - for Britain to stand as one of the guarantors of peace and democracy in our continent. 
And it is precisely because we are capable of feeling both things at once - skeptical about the modes of EU integration as we are, but passionate and enthusiastic about Europe, that the whole experience of the last three and a half years has been so difficult for this country and so divisive. And that is why it is now so urgent for us to move on and build a new relationship with our friends in the EU on the basis of a new deal - a deal that can heal the rift in British politics, unite, [unite, unite](Hear!) the warring instincts in us all. 

Обратите внимание на слова sceptical (UK) и civilization (UK).  В американском варианте английского – skeptical, civilization.

Откуда у британцев такой оптимизм по поводу того, что они смогут жить без ЕС? 

Why you’re so confident of that when so many people say, economically this will be disastrous? –Britain in the Brexit era is going to be a global force to be reckoned with. Britain is a highly innovative entrepreneurial country with rising economic freedom. This is a nation that has been one of the greatest nations in the world for many, many centuries, and will continue to be so. And also as a great free trading power once more freed of the shackles of the European Union, customs union ah…Britain will be able to strike free trade deals across the world, including with the United States.

To strike a deal = заключить сделку. Shackles = кандалы

Британцы, сбросив таможенные и иные «кандалы» ЕС, будут напрямую заключать соглашения с США. Однако на этот счет лейбористы настроены очень скептически. Для того, чтобы понять аллегорию, использованную в этом сюжете, вам придется сначала познакомиться с новыми словами из морского лексикона:

U.S.S.= United States Ship (только ВМФ)Dinghy = small boat (м.б. надувная, с веслами или мотором) 

It is about competing visions of our country’s future. We either in the EU and a leading member or you have what some people call “Soft Brexit” where you’re a rule taker rather than a rule maker which begs the question: why do you leave? Or you leave with hard deal struck 'No Brexit' and you hope to be the dinghy that is attached to the U.S.S. Enterprise.

Слово ‘dinghy’ заимствовано у индусов, поэтому звучит несколько странно. А по поводу «пижамы» вы не задумывались? Thug, assassin – это все тоже оттуда…

Немного боксерской терминологии в теме Brexit:

Trading blows over Brexit and the National Health Service. But did Boris Johnson or Jeremy Corbyn land a knockout punch?   

Это был сюжет конца 2019 года. Но ведь нас интересуют языковые реалии, а не хронология события. За три года до этого все началось «без перчаток»:

Gloves are off in Britain’s battle for Brexit with important British local elections now over. The two rival camps in the in/out debate are turning up the heat. And today they will wield up the big guns to talk war and peace. In one corner – Prime Minister David Cameron fighting for why his country should remain in a reformed EU. And in the other corner - the former London mayor Boris Johnson, who believes that Britain is better off out. First, Phil Black has our report. – In just 45 days, British people will head to the polls to cast their historic vote on whether to stay in or get out of the EU. As the clock counts down the war of words picks up. Prime Minister David Cameron for the “In” campaign sets out the security argument, saying peace in Europe could be threatened.

Боксерские термины используются часто. No use leading with our chins – поется в песне I wish you love (нет смысла рисковать). Bare knuckles approach – это вообще беспринципность и жестокость…

Борис Джонсон дарит нам еще одну лингвистическую жемчужину:

The people who bet against Britain are going to lose their shirts because we are going to restore trust in our democracy and we are going to fulfil the repeated promises of parliament to the people and come out of the EU on 31 October, no ifs or buts.

Рубашку теряют обычно, все проиграв… Разговор про демократию идет потому, что по результатам референдума по выходу из ЕС летом 2019 так ничего сделано и не было.

Еще одна идиома, но запоминать ее необязательно (используется редко):

Parliament and the Prime Minister are at loggerheads. 

Parliament and the Prime Minister are at loggerheads.

Быть at loggerheads означает примерно это

Происхождение идиомы мутное, loggerhead – вообще «черепаха».

Итак, британцы устали и разочарованы в своих политиках:

Disillusion with Parliament and politicians is nothing new: the Iraq war and the expenses scandal did them no favors. But the rumbling over Brexit has only made it worse.    

To rumble – это «громыхать», «гудеть» (как при землетрясении). Но здесь иной смысл: widespread expression of dissatisfaction or unrest.

Это все потому, что такого рода звуки вызывают тревогу. Давайте приступим к завершению этой темы, более подробно остановившись на фильме, который вышел в ноябре 2019 года. Смотрите и делайте свои собственные выводы. Просто представьте себя кем-нибудь из тех персонажей, которых увидите:

Leaving Westminster I headed from Merthyr Tydfil – once the heart of the Welsh coal mining industry.  Merthyr is traditionally red as red, labor through and through, but Wales voted ‘leave’ and leavers everywhere just want the job done.  

Насчет красного цвета:

Lisa Thomas runs her own hair salon in Merthyr’s marketplace. What made you want to leave the EU? –Because I think that we’ve got a right to be an independent country again. I think that’s what I would want in this. We should stand on our own and we should be looking after our own. We’ve become weak as a country because we are dependent on other people, on other countries. It’s taken away our dignity, it’s taken away our fight to be, proud to be British.  – How will Merthyr, which gets so much money from the EU, how will Merthyr be better off if we leave the EU? – Merthyr doesn’t need EU money to make Merthyr Merthyr. Merthyr it is Merthyr because the people live here.  
Why you think it’s taken 3.5 years and we still haven’t got there? – Because there’s too many chefs in the kitchen, there’s too many people trying to make decisions.       
What is it about Johnson that it possible that he succeeds and May doesn’t? – Ah, because he’s got the balls of steel and he’s willing to do what is needed for this country. – Are you a natural conservative then? – No. – What are you normally as a voter? – Labour. – Would you be a conservative voter now? – Yeah, a 100%. – 100%?-Yeah.

Это был разговор с парикмахером. Считать ли ее бизнес-леди? Конечно, несмотря на размер финансовых оборотов. А что думают бизнесмены, производящие детали для тракторов и экскаваторов?

To brexiteers Greg represents the typical voice of business, what they make think of as the remainer elite. What do you actually do here? – We make plastic components (inaudible) making parts for Cofra tractors, excavators and something like that. – How much do you export? – I would say 35% and probably in the end something like 80%.     

Brexiteers=leavers

In all this confusion, Greg, the boss, knows exactly what he’s going to do, a lifelong Tory it tells me next time he’s going to vote Lib Dem. He probably advises workers to do the same.   
Watford and a rally of the Brexit party. – “What Ms. May put on the table and what Boris is tried to amend and actually all Boris’s doing is putting lipstick on the pig.”

Не самые популярные политики иногда выражают близкие к истине точки зрения. Что же было решающим фактором выхода UK из EU?

The decisive factor was to allow ten countries, eight of them former communist countries. And suddenly mass open-door emigration flooding the labor market, driving, you know, the minimum wage becoming the maximum wage for millions of people. That was the decisive factor. 
Do you think the people of your generation are very divided on this issue? – There’s a massive skew   towards ‘remain’ - What about your parents or your grandparents?   Where do they stand? – It’s very interesting, my dad is Mr. Brexit, my dad is rightwing-Brexit man all the way, my mum is Ms. Remain.   
Family arguments have flared up in homes across the country and with it frustration that nothing seems to be happening.

To flare up – «вспыхнуть». 

How do you vote? – I vote Labour. – How did you keep your family together when you hold such different views? – We just agreed to disagree. 

Как вы должны были заметить, люди меняли свои традиционные политические пристрастия, если взгляды партии, за которую они привыкли голосовать, не совпадали с планами по поводу реализации Brexit. Да и внутри партий на эту тему не было единства.

Но цивилизованные люди, в которых нет «государственной точки зрения», всегда договорятся. Это не споры по поводу Украины в российских семьях (и между друзей), где спорить многим пришлось на фоне мощной пропаганды государственных каналов. Итак, британцы

AGREED TO DISAGREE

Примерно та же ситуация и в США. Вы заслужили смену жанра, раз почти дошли до конца:

И, наконец, если вас интересует фонетическая дискуссия по поводу того, как произносить слово Brexit, читайте эти строки:

It is the real issue dividing Britain. The question of how to pronounce a word that appears at least five times in every news bulletin is an increasingly urgent issue. As any phonetician will tell you, part of what separates the sounds “g” and “k” is an accompanying vibration of the vocal cords. It’s there in “g”, but absent in “k”, which are labelled voiced and voiceless consonants, or stops, as a result (you can feel this if you place a finger on your adam’s apple while saying “agah” or “akah”). In Breggsit, the vibration carries over into the “s” too, turning it into its voiced counterpart, “z”. Next time someone pulls you up on it, tell them you have taken back control of your intervocalic velar stops and they’ll almost certainly leave you alone. Why the split, though? Brexit is a recent coinage and, linguistically speaking, a “blend” (like brunch or smog), so you would expect most people to take their cue from the words used to create it: Britain and exit. If you say exit with a “k”, you will carry that over into Brexit. If you are in the significant minority of British people who say eggsit, you will say Breggsit. If in doubt, blame the Americans. The usual pronunciation of exit in the US is voiced, which may be why Breggsit seems to have conquered the airwaves over there. The lesson: however you say Brexit, it’s difficult not to end up with egg on your face.

PS

Модуль составлялся в начале декабря 2019 года. Конечно же, в конце января произойдут интереснейшие события. Но вы уже вооружены пониманием процессов. Поэтому вряд ли будет нужен модуль Brexit (III). Если только Шотландия не выйдет из UK, чтобы остаться в EU…

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.