00-79.3 Mandela and Mugabe

by

M&M (Mandela and Mugabe)

Если вы читаете эти строки, значит, вы привыкли уже к тому, что мы заняты изучением реалий планетарного языка. Прежде, чем мы подробно обсудим две колоритные фигуры, напомним, что даже в традиционных подходах говорят о необходимости знания «стран изучаемого языка». Обычно все ограничивается Великобританией с небольшой добавкой рассказов о США и Австралии. До Новой Зеландии добираются самые смелые преподаватели.

И только в лучших школах вам напомнят, что по-английски говорят в Южноафриканской республике и Зимбабве. Говорят и в других африканских странах, конечно. Например, в Нигерии, где английский знают 60 миллионов человек.

The English language was first brought to South Africa at the end of the 18th century. It spread northwards during the 19th century with the colonial exploration and exploitation of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia (former Southern and Northern Rhodesia respectively), especially by David Livingstone and Cecil Rhodes. The area on the left of Lake Nyasa (in present-day Malawi) was affected by this and partly anglicized. This was also true of Bechuanaland (present-day Botswana) which resisted incorporation into South Africa. The area of present-day Namibia came under German control later in the 19th century but was also affected by the spread of the English language from South Africa. Mozambique remained a dependency of Portugal (until 1975) and did not come within the sphere of English.

Английский продвигался вместе с колонизацией Африки, но любопытен феномен других стран, которые были французскими, немецкими и бельгийскими колониями – в них английский практически вытеснил остальные европейские языки. Когда мы говорим об английском, то нужно различать две ситуации: когда он является официальным государственным языком (среди прочих) и когда он – так называемый ‘Pidgin English”.

Pidgin language is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups).

Само слово Pidgin произвели китайцы, понимая под ним ‘business English’ 

На этой карте нам сейчас интересны две страны – South Africa and Zimbabwe. Первая из них – одна из богатейших стран континента, вторая – на грани экономического коллапса. Ниже - несколько фотографий, дающих представление о «суверенном» Zimbabwe dollar. В этой стране можно быть голодным миллиардером:

В 2018 году в результате военного переворота диктатор Роберт Мугабе был смещен с поста президента в результате «мягкого» военного переворота. Мягкость в том, что он получил 10 миллионов долларов и полную неприкосновенность за то, что не противился своему смещению:

-The coup is the coup, it’s not an apparent coup, it’s a coup. -It looks like there’s been an apparent coup. 

Само слово «тарабарщина» объясняет этот феномен: тарабарщина (что-то непонятное)- оценочное просторечие от "тарабарская грамота" Так именовался шифр, широко использовавшийся в древнерусских рукописях…

Если вы знаете слово ‘coup’, если вы знакомы с обстоятельствами ухода Мугабе, то без труда поймете ключевую фразу: The coup is the coup. Это слово звучит в новостях постоянно:

But the problem is it seems he won’t go. And the military commander has said will do it the hard way and to the rest of the world it looks like there’s been an apparent coup. 

Люди радуются уходу диктатора, но чем все это закончится? Ведь у того, кто сместил Мугабе и обещал свободные выборы, - кличка «Крокодил»…

Who knows of freedom of the military coup will deliver. But an army that was once an instrument of oppression is now celebrated. 
So much happiness and such high hopes but what difference will the former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa make as Mugabe successor now? Rule of law? Real elections, a proper transition to democracy? 
Fear has been cast off and expectations awakened. 

Смотреть новости прошлого всегда интересно тем, кто в курсе событий дня сегодняшнего. Чувствуешь себя «умнее всех», так как знаешь исход событий. Уход Мугабе и появление «Крокодила» фактически были предсказаны в этом сюжете:

After bitter infighting in the ruling party, this man - Emmerson Mnangagwa - known as the ‘crocodile’ for his ruthless record as a military chief seems to be the heir apparent. Are you confident that the transition when it comes is gonna be peaceful and stable? -  Look it's not like we are in monarchy like you. You know getting into power here is not by inheritance, it is by election, it's the people. Power in this country is acquired through a democratic election. - Another bus heads to South Africa. Zimbabwe has been hemorrhaging people and confidence for years. Turning that around when the Mugabe era ends will be no easy task. Stephen Sackur BBC News, Harare.

В этом сюжете интересна устойчивая фраза ‘heir apparent’, которая обычно используется лишь в тех случаях, когда речь идет о монархии. Зимбабве никогда не была демократической страной, поэтому шутка ведущего уместна. 

An ‘heir apparent’ is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.

Heir произносится так же, как и air…

Следующее видео интересно своими лингвистическими моментами:

And finally Robert Mugabe turned out to be President for life, give or take a few years. This week the military finally took over and detained him. And he’s apparently negotiating his future with them. It could be hard to imagine how the freedom fighter of the 1970’s and 80’s became a ruthless authoritarian. And I had a chance to seat across for him...from him in 2009 and I asked: ‘how he justified the collapse of Zimbabwe under his own iron grip?’ – I will never, never, never, never surrender! Zimbabwe is mine, and I am the Zimbabwean, Zimbabwe for Zimbabweans. Zimbabwe never for the British! Britain for the British! - Is that just political rally rhetoric or did you mean that? What did you mean? - That Zimbabwe belongs to the Zimbabwean. Right, since you to cover life expectancy has dropped, the manufacturing has fallen, 1 in 14 people malnourished. – I am just telling you the reasons. It is because of sanctions mainly. – But everybody says is not because of sanctions it’s because of mismanagement. – Not ev… not ev… not everybody says so. – Most people do, most people and the observers say so. - In Zimbabwe… It is not true! – I would like to play one sound by a neighbor of yours. A Nobel peace prize winner archbishop Desmond Tutu who said the following. – He’s destroyed a wonderful country, a country that used to be a bread basket, it has now become a basket case itself. But I think now, I mean that, the world must say ‘look, you have been responsible with your cohorts, you’ve been responsible for gross violations and you are going to face indictment in the Hague unless you step down. - How do you respond for that? First, you have taken the bread basket of Africa into a basket case?. No, it’s not a basket case at all. - Why is it so difficult to leave power in a reasonable way, when you are up, instead of waiting until it gets to this stage? … No! We do not leave power when imperialists dictate that you leave. - Are you afraid as some have suggested but one day you might be indicted by an international criminal court? - No, I do not care about that - the international, what they decide entirely their own affair. I am concerned about Zimbabwe and I am concerned about the lives of the people of Zimbabwe. And don’t forget, it was my party which brought democracy to the country and not the British. We had to fight the British for democracy, for one man, one person-one vote. And that’s it for a program this week, remember you can always listen to a podcasts, see us online on Amapour.com and follow me on Facebook and Tweeter. Thanks for watching and goodbye for New York

Это видео – поучительный пример, показывающий, что не только журналист CNN активно использует идиоматику, но и архиепископ, а также сам Мугабе (африканцы). Диктатор превратил ‘bread basket’ («житницу») в страну-калеку, в изгоя:

Именно «калеку». В корзинах после второй мировой войны переносили калек с оторванными конечностями. Впоследствии идиома трансформировалась и стала означать что-то слабое, оторванное от мэйнстрима…

Когда писались эти строки, в Зимбабве прошли относительно свободные выборы, на которых победил «Крокодил». Несмотря на массовые подтасовки со стороны правящей партии, большое количество голосов было отдано оппозиции. Лидеров оппозиции, по крайней мере, больше не избивали (как при Мугабе). И не убивали. Диктатор, который правил почти четыре десятка лет и довел страну до экономического коллапса, is gone…

Нельсон Мандела, о ком пойдет речь дальше, был соратником Роберта Мугабе в борьбе с режимами белого меньшинства в их странах. Английский писатель Martin Meredith  :

"Both were born in an era when white power prevailed throughout Africa, Mandela in 1918, Mugabe in 1924. Both were products of the Christian mission school system, Mandela of the Methodist variety, Mugabe of the Catholic. Both attended the same university, Fort Hare in South Africa. Both emerged as members of the small African professional elite, Mandela a lawyer, Mugabe a teacher. Both were drawn into the struggle against white minority rule, Mandela in South Africa, Mugabe in neighboring Rhodesia. Both advocated violence to bring down white-run regimes. Both endured long terms of imprisonment, Mandela, 27 years, Mugabe, 11 years."

Разница между этими персонажами очень существенная. Мугабе – непримиримый националист. Мандела на первых порах придерживался коммунистических взглядов. 

Мугабе превратился в международного изгоя, Мандела – в подобие иконы:

Последующие три видео посвящены анализу этой иконы в глазах СМИ. Для начала напомним, что т.н. «либеральные» СМИ очень подробно разбирали тему краткосрочного романа Д.Трампа с порно звездой Stormy Daniels. В это же время те же СМИ отмечали 100-летие со дня рождения Нельсона Манделы

And I just wanna contrast this… I sort of played this in.. at the end this week continuing come conversing about this but… Look at something like Stormy Daniels, the whole Stormy Daniels' debacle whether devoting endless amount of attention to the possibility that I guess more than 10 years ago Trump may have had a consensual sexual relationship with a porn star. That is where the morality of the mainstream media is when it comes to talking about communism. Well, their ethics are completely absent if not absolutely reversed. The communist regimes that murdered at least a hundred million people, quite a lot of them backed Nelson Mandela with troops and funding and more. And this South African revolutionaries - Mandela and Zuma and others -  they sang songs that advocated the mass-murder of the white people.
Mandela was repeatedly offered the opportunity to work out of prison if he just renounced violence which, of course, he consistently refused to do. And therefore he chose the same because he continued to advocate for terrorism, for political acts of mass-murder in order to gain his objectives. And again his objectives were not freedom for the blacks. His objective was destruction of capitalism and the imposition of a communist dictatorship in South Africa. This is not liberty for the blacks. And we've seen that, of course, play out. Nelson Mandela, of course, leader of the African National Congress. That was an organization designated as the terrorist group by the US State Department and many intelligence agencies and many governments around the world. There was the ANC’s impromptu… we see, well,  it’s called ‘the spear of the nation". Nelson Mandela co-founded this militant terrorist group within a larger terrorist group. 

Интересное слово – impromptu: done without being planned or rehearsed, a short piece of instrumental music, especially a solo, that is reminiscent of an improvisation.

Мы еще обсудим итоги разрушения государства, основанного на апартеиде. Пока что начнем с того, что вдохновляло чернокожее большинство в борьбе за равноправие (кстати, равноправия не получилось – об этом также позднее):

Across the world, music and song are central to the identity and spiritual status of cultural groups. Generally, music shares emotion whilst the words sung tell the story behind the creation of the song. In many ways music serves as a cultural gauge, giving insight to the popular beliefs, norms and aspirations of societies. Southern Africa has a vast heritage of music and dance resources, these being intrinsic aspects of ethnic history. In South Africa a provocative culture of liberation songs has evolved around the struggle against apartheid and racial domination. The meaning and significance of these songs have remained the mystery to the vast majority of whites, since they do not have command of an African language. A remarkable pitch of these songs is their popularity. All age groups from the very young to the very old appear to have being imbued with the words of these songs. Participation is total. Every word seemingly charged with energy. Sadly though, if one is to assess the spirit of the liberation struggle by the messages contained in their songs, the results deny emphatically the potential for peace and reconsolidation in South Africa. 

To imbue = to inspire (больше в смысле «наполнить, пропитать»)

Many liberation songs indicate little or no tolerance of opposition politics. In fact, if you oppose the ANC or its alliesб these songs say: you have a very good chance of dying. The violent words of these songs are sometimes are accompanied by the burning of the enemies flags and effigies or photographs of their leaders. ANC! ANC!

Эти видео дают вам представление о том, какой заряд ненависти против белого меньшинства был накоплен среди чернокожего большинства. Нельзя, кстати, говорить об «угнетенном местном населении», так как в понятие «цветные» входили индусы и другие «понаехавшие». Человек, который смог сдержать эту разрушительную силу и предотвратить массовое насилие над меньшинством, заслуживает уважения в любом случае. По поводу кровавых расправ с неугодными у Манделы были даже противоречия с другим «моральным авторитетом» - собственной женой Винни Мандела. В 2018 году она умерла, что также вызвало поток слез с экранов телевизоров. Вот, что сказал Президент Южной Африки:

It is true, that she, and her then husband Nelson, fought an evil, fought apartheid and a brutality with which it was imposed by the white government. But in the end, Madikizela-Mandela unlike her husband became the evil that she condemned. For instance, she called for black South Africans that she considered too close to the apartheid regime to be murdered by necklacing which is putting a tar soaked in petrol around their neck, and setting it alight. - We could have killed them anytime we wanted to. With our necklaces we shall liberate this country. - In the 1980’s she also led a gang which imposed a reign of terror in parts of Soweto.   Called a Mandelian United Football Club which on her orders kidnaped, tortured and cut the throat of 14-year old Stompie Moeketsi whom  Madikizela-Mandela falsely accused of having had sex with a white priest.

Следующие два видео и фотография дадут Вам представление о «пламенном» революционере в буквальном смысле слова: “We have no guns – we have only stones, boxes of matches and petrol,” she told a township crowd. “Together, hand-in-hand, with our boxes of matches and our necklaces we shall liberate this country.”

Necklacing was the term for killing a perceived traitor with a petrol-filled burning tire around the neck.

It is true, that she, and her then husband Nelson, fought an evil, fought apartheid and a brutality with which it was imposed by the white government. But in the end, Madikizela-Mandela unlike her husband became the evil that she condemned. For instance, she called for black South Africans that she considered too close to the apartheid regime to be murdered by necklacing which is putting a tar soaked in petrol around their neck, and setting it alight. - We could have killed them anytime we wanted to. With our necklaces we shall liberate this country. - In the 1980’s she also led a gang which imposed a reign of terror in parts of Soweto.   Called a Mandelian United Football Club which on her orders kidnaped, tortured and cut the throat of 14-year old Stompie Moeketsi whom  Madikizela-Mandela falsely accused of having had sex with a white priest.

Then husband = муж в то время (так же говорят о президентах – then president)

Вернемся к мужу героини

After more than 5 weeks in hospital, today's birthday is an important milestone for Mister Mandela. But many are now bracing themselves for the final farewell- The Nelson Mandela's coffin. - It's not clear whether Mandela's casket will be there. - And the giant white specially erected marquee. - People in that marquee. - And we see in the marquee again. - His body will then lie in state for 3 days from December 11th to 13th. - The former South African leader's body will lie in state in Pretoria for the next 3 days. 
 … some four thousand people including presidents, several prime-ministers and a Vice-President of Iran  and the Prince of Wales representing Her Majesty The Queen will attend the funeral in a giant white specially erected marquee.

Разберитесь в деталях похоронного топика самостоятельно. Обратите внимание на слова ‘coffin’ и ‘casket’ – это все «гробы», но только ‘casket’ вы сможете купить в Yellow Pages любого города, обсуждая детали товара (ручки, окошко и даже вентиляция). Это слово ввели в оборот циничные американцы – ранее это слово означало лишь «шкатулку» - a small, decorative box, especially one used to keep jewellery in.

Далее, в последних видео есть еще важная фраза ‘lying in state’ (ее уже проходили). И, наконец, есть еще экзотическое слово marquee - a large tent set up for an outdoor party, reception, or exhibition. Это слово для гурманов – оно означает не только специально возведенную конструкцию для похорон Н. Манделы, но и то, что вы увидите в следующих фотографиях

Впрочем, без этого слова можно и прожить. Но ‘coffin’ от ‘casket’ отличайте, идиому lying in state тоже важно знать.

Вернемся к мужу этой пламенной женщины, статуя которого стоит в центре Лондона. Говорит представитель ультраправой партии (BNP), которую многие считают фашистской. Однако, для этого и существует в цивилизованных странах плюрализм мнений. Послушайте и попытайтесь возразить – вдруг вам придется пройти мимо этой статуи и с кем-нибудь поспорить?

Hello! My name is David  Furness. I'm the British National Party London Mayoral candidate for 2016. I'm here in Parliament Square today in front of this statue behind me which is Nelson Mandela. Now I want to know why he is in this Parliament Square? He is not British and what he… he's done nothing for this country. I'll tell you the truth about Nelson Mandela. He was in prison for 27 years not because of his political beliefs but because he was a murderer and a terrorist. He pleaded guilty 256 acts of violence against innocent people. Many women and children were killed in train stations, cafes and shopping centers. Amnesty International refused to petition for his release because he refused to renounce violence. Also, it can be seen on youtube video singing songs about killing white people. Furthermore, he was offered early release on the condition that he renounced violence but he turned it down.   
Why is this statue here? I'd like to see it removed. It should be offered to the South African embassy. If they don't take it then I'll have it removed and melted down. Mahatma Gandhi was not British, he did nothing for this country. Why is this statue here? Here is the truth about Gandhi. He believed in slavery because he believed strongly in the Hindu caste system. It is basically slavery. He went on a hunger strike to maintain the caste system in India when the British actually wanted to end it.

Рядом с Манделой в центре Лондона стоит еще один противоречивый моральный авторитет – Махатма Ганди. С одной стороны, он боролся за права так называемых dalit (untouchables), с другой – его философия и практические интересы требовали сохранения кастовой системы. Ганди считал, что попытка британцев уничтожить кастовую систему в Индии – это желание разрушить общественный уклад страны (чем не желание сохранить апартеид?).

Нельсон Мандела говорил, что его отказ от насилия отличается от философии Ганди, признаваясь, что всегда может вернуться к практике терроризма, за который он сидел в тюрьме. Кстати, прочтите дискуссии по поводу статуй. Дискутируют британцы:

Eight months later, Gandhi announced he was beginning a “fast unto death” in order to protest British support of a new Indian constitution, which gave the country’s lowest classes–known as “untouchables”–their own separate political representation for a period of 70 years. Gandhi believed this would permanently and unfairly divide India’s social classes. A member of the more powerful Vaisya, or merchant caste, Gandhi nonetheless advocated the emancipation of the untouchables, whom he called Harijans, or “Children of God.”

Тема наследия Ганди требует отдельного разговора. Вряд ли у нас найдется время на него. Однако вам могут быть интересны факты:

Анализ этой фотографии займет время, но с этой информацией все проще:

«В возрасте 37 лет Махатма Ганди дал обет брахмачария, что подразумевало полный отказ от собственности, от употребления в пищу продуктов животного происхождения, половое воздержание и эмоциональное спокойствие. Семью Ганди отправил в Феникс. Практиковал Брахмачарию Ганди достаточно специфическим образом: после смерти жены Ганди обязывал спать (просто спать рядом) вместе с собой женщин из ашрама, которым запрещалось спать с их законными мужьями. В последние месяцы жизни Ганди делил постель с племянницей Ману, и с 18-летней Абхой, женой своего внучатого племянника. Такое поведение вызывало у многих недоумение, но это была не придумка Ганди, а следование тантрической практике, которая позволяла достичь контроля за сексуальной энергией».

While in Bengal to see what comfort he could offer in times of inter-communal violence in the run-up to independence, Gandhi called for his 18-year-old grandniece Manu to join him – and sleep with him. "We both may be killed by the Muslims," he told her, "and must put our purity to the ultimate test, so that we know that we are offering the purest of sacrifices, and we should now both start sleeping naked."

Such behavior was no part of the accepted practice of bramacharya. He, by now, described his reinvented concept of a brahmachari as: "One who never has any lustful intention, who, by constant attendance upon God, has become proof against conscious or unconscious emissions, who is capable of lying naked with naked women, however beautiful, without being in any manner whatsoever sexually excited ... who is making daily and steady progress towards God and whose every act is done in pursuance of that end and no other." That is, he could do whatever he wished, so long as there was no apparent "lustful intention". He had effectively redefined the concept of chastity to fit his personal practices.

Представляется странным, что человек, практикующий такие эксперименты, мог сделать что-то полезное для страны. Он еще рекомендовал полный отказ от секса молодоженам (навсегда).

Вернемся к Нельсону Манделе и послушаем его охранника. Кстати, это типичный язык белых людей в Южной Африке:

And we were trained, very well trained, we understood fully understood ANC ideology. We were trained in what, you know, the party believes, we used to read the Seshaba . And when Madiba was released from prison in February 1990 I can remember well the first speech publicly that he made was in the Grand Parade in Cape Town. He said that South Africa is for all the people both black and white. And I remembered going ‘or whatever, of course you are gonna say that’s the party line, don’t expect anything different’. But it was not until three or four years later when I first met Madiba, started to work with him and watched very carefully, to see when this façade of, you know, ‘South Africa is for of all the people’ would crumble and when the real, you know, hard line communist, terrorist, would come through. And of course the facade never cracked because it wasn’t a facade.

Обратите внимание на фразу and ‘it was not until’ – ТАК БЫЛО ДО!!! (отрицания нет!).

Madiba – так звали Манделу его фанаты (по названию племени). Seshaba – журнал ANC.

Заслуживает уважения эта мысль, высказанная Манделой:

Но о человеке многое говорит то, кто у него друзья:

Birds of feather flock together

Присоединение к этому ряду фотографии с Клинтоном лишний раз подчеркивает необъективность автора этих строк - полное отсутствие симпатий к Демократической партии США. Но имейте в виду: дискутируя с ее представителями, всегда хвалите Н.Манделу. До смерти Р.Рейгана возглавляемая им организация (ANC) признавалась террористической.

Будьте теперь и вы необъективны. Имейте собственное мнение, и мир заиграет дополнительными красками. Да, Мандела не допустил того, чтобы белое меньшинство пострадало физически от разрушения режима апартеида. Но нужно признать, что при этом страна более не имеет ни космической, ни ядерной программы… А есть ли равенство рас? 

Everything about these scenes supports the notion that white South Africans have it pretty good. This suggests that there is another side to this story. She goes door to door in poor white areas with bags of food. - When I first met Sis and her family, they were all sleeping on the floor. On the cement. They had no beds, they had no furniture. They had absolutely nothing. - Living condition's similar to what you will find in many of the black townships. This tiny house is a home for two families. - So all 11 people sleep in this house? - Yes. - It's very small, though. – Very, very small. - Lora Fentor and her children, her sister's family, her mother Patronella Kazmir lives here too. And they all survive on her 94 dollar a month pension. Patronella believes there is only one reason why they are in this desperate state. It started, she says, when the black government came to power 15 years ago. In the past, in the apartheid years, white people put them down. Now it's their turn to put us down. - It is a common feeling among white South Africans who've fallen on hard times:  they are the victims, they say, of affirmative action or what they call reverse discrimination. - Literally, every person in this room feels that way. They all lived and worked during the apartheid era. They are left with meager pensions and come to this community center twice a week for a free meal. They don't talk openly but ask a few questions and the bitterness rises. - I'm sorry but it's the truth. The black.. sorry it's true.. is getting a job, the white people(s)  staying behind. First the black and then the white. And that is the truth. - It is true that South Africa has its own version of affirmative action. It's called ‘black economic empowerment’ and it was seen as vital in the new South Africa. Go to anyone in the government ministries in Pretoria today and most of the civil servants are black. It used to be that most of the faces that you'd see on the streets here were white. Under the apartheid system, if you were a white person, you got a job. - If you did very badly at school, you didn't go to university, were a bit of layabout, you would find your way into the state apparatus. You become a bureaucrat or something like that. - Of course, it wasn't just government workers - the entire labor market changed. Years later blacks and whites are now competing for jobs on equal terms. And whites don't always come out on top. Dork Fanded Dradu is a mechanic. - I haven't been able to find a job for 6 months, I used to be on the streets. - He's now got a one-room house on the small plot of land. This camp was set up by a nearby community organization mainly whites. Without it, the people here would be homeless. 

Plot of land – участок земли

В заключение последний африканский «лучик».

In an exclusive interview before the London Olympics. - That's when he was younger. - I visited Pistorius's grandmother at her home in Pretoria. Where she spoke in her native language Afrikaans. - The moment you saw him, it broke your heart. 

Веером машет супруга усопшего…

P.S.

Апартеид (раздельное проживание) – слово, пришедшее из языка под названием Afrikaans. На формирование этого языка оказали влияние немецкий и голландский языки. Послушайте этот язык:

In an exclusive interview before the London Olympics. - That's when he was younger. - I visited Pistorius's grandmother at her home in Pretoria. Where she spoke in her native language Afrikaans. - The moment you saw him, it broke your heart. 

Говорит мать легендарного безногого бегуна, который застрелил свою любимую женщину.

https://www.englishpatient.org/share/i/up-and-coming

Специализируемся на развитии навыков говорения и понимания реальной речи на слух. Используем только оригинальные материалы.